Diabetes

A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet (n = 38) or to make no diet changes (n = 37) for 16 weeks. At baseline and 16 weeks, beta-cell function was quantified with a mathematical model. Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index was used to assess insulin resistance while fasting.

Plant versus animal based diets and insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study.

Vegan or vegetarian diets have been suggested to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, not much is known on whether variation in the degree of having a plant-based versus animal-based diet may be beneficial for prevention of T2D. We aimed to investigate whether level of adherence to a diet high in plant-based foods and low in animal-based foods is associated with insulin resistance, prediabetes, and T2D. Our analysis included 6798 participants (62.7 ± 7.8 years) from the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands.

A 48-Hour Vegan Diet Challenge in Healthy Women and Men Induces a BRANCH-Chain Amino Acid Related, Health Associated, Metabolic Signature.

SCOPE:Research is limited on diet challenges to improve health. A short-term, vegan protein diet regimen nutritionally balanced in macronutrient composition compared to an omnivorous diet was hypothesized to improve metabolic measurements of blood sugar regulation, blood lipids, and amino acid metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: This randomized, cross-over, controlled vegan verses animal diet challenge was conducted on 21 (11 female,10 male) healthy participants. Fasting plasma was measured during a 3-day diet intervention for clinical biochemistry and metabonomics.

Lacto-Vegetarian Diet and Correlation of Fasting Blood Sugar with Lipids in Population Practicing Sedentary Lifestyle.

Rising burden of diabetes in India requires quick intervention that integrates policies and programs for effective prevention and control of disease. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to observe effect of diet in two Indian communities practicing sedentary lifestyle. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood sugar, glycated-hemoglobin (HbA1C), and lipid profile. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements were recorded.

"A Vegetarian vs. Conventional Hypocaloric Diet: The Effect on Physical Fitness in Response to Aerobic Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes." A Parallel Randomized Study.

It has been shown that it is possible to modify macronutrient oxidation, physical fitness and resting energy expenditure (REE) by changes in diet composition. Furthermore, mitochondrial oxidation can be significantly increased by a diet with a low glycemic index. The purpose of our trial was to compare the effects of a vegetarian (V) and conventional diet (C) with the same caloric restriction (-500 kcal/day) on physical fitness and REE after 12 weeks of diet plus aerobic exercisein 74 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). An open, parallel, randomized study design was used.

Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study.

OBJECTIVES:
A vegetarian diet may prevent elevation of blood pressures and lower the risk for hypertension through lower degrees of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. This study investigated the association between a vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence in a cohort of Taiwanese adult nonsmokers and examined whether this association was mediated through inflammation, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance (using fasting glucose as a proxy).

Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review of clinical intervention and observational studies.

BACKGROUND:
Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index.

OBJECTIVE:
We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, and CVD in apparently healthy adults.

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