Review

Effects of sugar and fat consumption on sweet and fat taste

Excessive consumption of fat and sugar is associated with development of diet related diseases. While there are multiple factors involved with overconsumption of sweet and fatty foods, the taste system is responsible for identifying sugars and fats in foods, and in this way inform consumption of potential foods. Published research linking sweet taste and sugar consumption is limited and conflicting with one recent dietary intervention supporting a link between sweet taste and sugar consumption.

The moderate essential amino acid restriction entailed by low-protein vegan diets may promote vascular health by stimulating FGF21 secretion.

The serum total and LDL cholesterol levels of long-term vegans tend to be very low. The characteristically low ratio of saturated to unsaturated fat in vegan diets, and the absence of cholesterol in such diets, clearly contribute to this effect. But there is reason to suspect that the quantity and composition of dietary protein also play a role in this regard. Vegan diets of moderate protein intake tend to be relatively low in certain essential amino acids, and as a result may increase hepatic activity of the kinase GCN2, which functions as a gauge of amino acid status.

The importance of habits in eating behaviour. An overview and recommendations for future research.

There is ample evidence to suggest that a significant part of daily eating behaviours consists of habits. In line with this, the concept of habit is increasingly incorporated into studies investigating the behavioural and psychosocial determinants of food choice, yielding evidence that habit is one of the most powerful predictors of eating behaviour.

Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.

Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D

Calcium and vitamin D are two essential nutrients long known for their role in bone health. But since 2000, the public has heard conflicting messages about other benefits of these nutrients—especially vitamin D—and also about how much calcium and vitamin D they need to be healthy. To help clarify this issue, the United States and Canadian governments asked the IOM to assess the current data on health outcomes associated with calcium and vitamin D, as well as updating the nutrient reference values, known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).

Vegetarian diets across the lifecycle: impact on zinc intake and status.

Optimal zinc status is an important consideration when evaluating the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets. In the absence of animal tissue sources of zinc and with increased intake of inhibitors of zinc absorption, phytic acid in particular, the bioavailability of zinc is thought to be lower from vegetarian as compared to omnivorous diets. The aim of this chapter is to review the research that examines the effects of vegetarian compared to omnivorous diets on zinc intake and zinc status in the elderly, adults, children, pregnancy, and lactation.

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