Prospective

Effects of meat consumption and vegetarian diet on risk of wrist fracture over 25 years in a cohort of peri- and postmenopausal women.

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial to bone health has sparked interest in the potential benefit of a vegetarian diet. However, other studies have raised a question regarding the adequacy of protein in such a diet. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to take a whole foods approach in examining the effects of foods high in protein on the risk of wrist fracture (WF) in a cohort with a significant proportion consuming a meat-free diet. DESIGN: A cohort study of women who completed two lifestyle surveys 25 years apart.

Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up.

Change in quality of life and immune markers after a stay at a raw vegan institute: a pilot study.

OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to explore changes in quality of life (QOL), anxiety, stress, and immune markers after a stay at a raw vegan institute. DESIGN:Prospective observational study. SETTING:English-speaking attendees at Hippocrates Health Institute (Florida, US), a raw vegan institute, were recruited on arrival and typically stayed 1-3 weeks.

Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

OBJECTIVE:Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. DESIGN:Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns.

The impact of vegan diet on B-12 status in healthy omnivores: five-year prospective study.

BACKGROUND:There are no long-term prospective studies assessing the impact of the vegan diet on vitamin B-12 (B-12) status. Many vegans take B-12 supplements irregularly or refuse to adopt them at all, considering them to be "unnatural" products. The use of B-12 fortified food may be an alternative. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the long-term effect of a vegan diet on serum B-12 concentrations in healthy omnivore adults, comparing the influence of natural products consumption and B-12 fortified food.

Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population.

BACKGROUND:Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. As people do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and cancer risk. METHODS:We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2.

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