Prospective

Iron and zinc status of young women aged 14 to 19 years consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

OBJECTIVE:To assess the iron and zinc status of young females, aged 14 to 19 years, consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets. METHODS:Dietary intakes (via 3-day weighed food records), BMI, and laboratory indices of iron and zinc status were compared in a convenience sample of 79 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 16 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females. RESULTS:Twenty-nine percent LOV, 44% SV, and 17% OM had low iron stores (i.e., plasma ferritin < 12 micrograms/L); only 3% had anemia.

Antioxidant status in long-term adherents to a strict uncooked vegan diet.

Antioxidant status was investigated in 20 Finnish middle-aged female vegans and in one male vegan who were following a strict, uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet"), by means of a dietary survey and biochemical measurements (blood concentrations of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, and the activities of the zinc/copper-dependent superoxide dismutase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase). Values were compared with those of omnivores matched for sex, age, social status, and residence.

The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group.

Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets.

PURPOSE:To determine the energy and nutrient intakes of some omnivorous and vegetarian female adolescents to compare their risk for nutrient inadequacies. METHODS:A convenience sample of 78 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 15 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females aged 14-19 years completed three-day weighed records from which mean intakes and major food sources of energy, nutrients, and dietary fiber (as nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP)) were calculated.

Blood pressure and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles of fish-diet and vegetarian villagers in Tanzania: the Lugalawa study.

BACKGROUND:There is evidence that populations with a high intake of fish, and specifically fish oils, are at reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. To explore the effect of fish intake, we compared two groups of Bantu villagers in Tanzania; one group live on the shores of Lake Nyasa and their diet includes large amounts of freshwater fish; the other group live in the nearby hills and have a vegetarian diet. METHODS:We carried out a cross-sectional study of 622 fish-consuming villagers and 686 vegetarian villagers. 618 (99.4%) and 645 (94.0%), respectively, agreed to take part.

A longitudinal study of the growth of matched pairs of vegetarian and omnivorous children, aged 7-11 years, in the north-west of England.

OBJECTIVE:To assess the ability of a meat free diet to support normal growth of children. DESIGN:A one year longitudinal observational case--comparison study of growth. SETTING:Children were recruited mainly through schools from Merseyside and all measurements were taken in their homes. SUBJECTS:Fifty 'free-living' children following meat free diets, aged 7-11 y (expected to be pre-pubertal), were compared with a control group of 50 omnivores matched for age, sex and ethnic group. INTERVENTION:None.

Interactive effects of exercise, alcohol, and vegetarian diet on coronary artery disease risk factors in 9242 runners: the National Runners' Health Study.

In a national survey, 199 male and 152 female vegetarian runners and 7054 male and 1837 female omnivorous runners provided data on weekly intakes of alcohol, red meat, fish, and fruit, and weekly distance run. This information was compared with physician-supplied medical data to test whether 1) running benefits vegetarians, 2) alcohol and running distance contribute independently to concentrations of high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and 3) running mitigates the hypertensive effects of alcohol.

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