Prospective

Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

BACKGROUND:
Several human studies have observed a direct association between retinol (vitamin A) intake and risk of prostate cancer; other studies have found either an inverse association or no association of intake of beta-carotene (the major provitamin A) with risk of prostate cancer. Data regarding carotenoids other than beta-carotene in relation to prostate cancer risk are sparse.

PURPOSE:
We concluded a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between the intake of various carotenoids, retinol, fruits, and vegetables and the risk of prostate cancer.

Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

Laboratory and clinical data indicate an antitumor effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on prostate cancer. High calcium intake suppresses formation of 1,25(OH)2D from 25(OH)D, thereby decreasing the 1,25(OH)2D level. Ingestion of fructose reduces plasma phosphate transiently, and hypophosphatemia stimulates 1,25(OH)2D production. We thus conducted a prospective study among 47,781 men of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study free of cancer in 1986 to examine whether calcium and fructose intake influenced risk of prostate cancer.

Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in adventist health study 2.

IMPORTANCE Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. DESIGN Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. SETTING Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort.

Velocities of growth in vegetarian preschool children.

The growth velocities (weight and length) of vegetarian preschool children were compared to norms established from the Harvard growth study. At first measurement vegetarian subjects weighed less and were shorter than expected from Harvard standards. Growth velocities of children under 2 years of age were depressed, while among those over the age of 2 growth velocities were generally comparable to Harvard norms. Vegetarian boys over age 2 exhibited a higher mean weight velocity.

Diet and plasma androgens in postmenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women and postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

We studied 27 postmenopausal women, 9 vegetarians, 10 omnivores, and 8 apparently healthy women with breast cancer (BC), four times during 1 y. Dietary intakes were recorded and plasma androgens and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binding capacity were determined. Androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), free T (FT), and SHBG were higher in omnivores than in vegetarians. In multiple correlation analysis, intakes of protein and fat were positively correlated with A, T, and FT, whereas the intakes of carbohydrate, grain, total fiber, and grain fiber showed the opposite correlations.

Vegetarian diets and colon cancer: the German experience.

The study assessed mortality and morbidity risks as related to nutritional status of moderate and strict vegetarians in Germany. The total cohort of 1904 self-identified persons was followed up for 11 y. Compared with national mortality rates for Federal Republic of Germany, the observed deaths for all causes were below expectation by a factor of 0.44 for men and 0.53 for women. The mortality for colon cancer was reduced [standardized mortality ration (SMR 44.1 for men and 77.9 for women]. No deaths were observed from rectal cancer.

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