AAA - All Designs

Bone status and adipokine levels in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

Ask the doctor. My doctor recently advised me to start taking an 81-mg aspirin once a day. I am physically active 62-year-old and have been a vegetarian-mostly vegan-for 35 years. My BMI is less than 24, my HDL is over 70, and my Framingham risk score is 8%. My only problems are systolic blood pressure in the 130s and an occasional episode of arrhythmia. I'd really rather not take aspirin. Am I being foolish in questioning my doctor's advice?

Abstract summary

A randomized crossover trial on the effect of plant-based compared with animal-based meat on trimethylamine-N-oxide and cardiovascular disease risk factors in generally healthy adults: Study With Appetizing Plantfood-Meat Eating Alternative Trial (SWAP-MEAT).

BACKGROUND: Despite the rising popularity of plant-based alternative meats, there is limited evidence of the health effects of these products. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effect of consuming plant-based alternative meat (Plant) as opposed to animal meat (Animal) on health factors. The primary outcome was fasting serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Secondary outcomes included fasting insulin-like growth factor 1, lipids, glucose, insulin, blood pressure, and weight.

Association study of dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and colorectal cancer risk in the Spanish Multicase-Control Cancer (MCC-Spain) study.

PURPOSE: Studies attempting to link dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant activity (NEAC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have reported mixed results. We examined this association in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study considering the likely influence of coffee and other dietary factors. METHODS: 1718 CRC cases and 3312 matched-controls provided information about diet through a validated 140-item food frequency questionnaire.

Women in LOVe: Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian Diet Rich in Omega-3 Improves Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women. An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

OBJECTIVES: In the postmenopausal period, most women suffer vasomotor symptoms (VMS). It is well-known that VMS can worsen the quality of life. Diet seems to play a relevant role in the development of VMS, but the effect of diet on VMS is mainly limited to observational studies, and analyses of nutritional supplements. The aim of this study was thus to determine the efficacy of a lactoovo- vegetarian (LOVe) diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids vs. a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet rich in EVO (extra-virgin olive oil) in reducing VMS frequency in postmenopausal women.

Erythromycin-resistant lactic acid bacteria in the healthy gut of vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores.

Diet can affect the diversity and composition of gut microbiota. Usage of antibiotics in food production and in human or veterinary medicine has resulted in the emergence of commensal antibiotic resistant bacteria in the human gut. The incidence of erythromycin-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the feces of healthy vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores was analyzed. Overall, 155 LAB were isolated and characterized for their phenotypic and genotypic resistance to erythromycin. The isolates belonged to 11 different species within the Enterococcus and Streptococcus genera.

Improving the reporting quality of intervention trials addressing the inter-individual variability in response to the consumption of plant bioactives: quality index and recommendations.

PURPOSE: The quality of the study design and data reporting in human trials dealing with the inter-individual variability in response to the consumption of plant bioactives is, in general, low. There is a lack of recommendations supporting the scientific community on this topic. This study aimed at developing a quality index to assist the assessment of the reporting quality of intervention trials addressing the inter-individual variability in response to plant bioactive consumption. Recommendations for better designing and reporting studies were discussed.

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