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Nutritional concerns of lactating women consuming vegetarian diets.

Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of the mother, infant, or both. Vitamin D and calcium status in vegetarian women may be low, resulting in maternal bone demineralization. Vitamin B-12 deficiency resulting in neurologic damage has been reported in infants of vegetarian women. A review of several studies completed on women in the northeastern United States who were consuming a macrobiotic diet is presented. Supplemental vitamin D does not appear to be necessary given sufficient sun exposure.

Content and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetarian diets.

This review compares the content and major food sources of copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Interactions affecting trace element bioavailability and their impact on the trace element status of vegetarians are discussed. Adult vegetarian diets often have a lower zinc and selenium content but a higher copper and manganese content compared with omnivorous diets.

[Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet].

The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances.

Dietary intake and tissue concentration of fatty acids in omnivore, vegetarian and diabetic pregnancy.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fatty acid intake and insulin dependent diabetes on the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord. Fatty acid intake (from food frequency questionnaire) and the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord from pregnant vegetarians (n = 4) and insulin dependent diabetics (n = 5) was compared with pregnant omnivores (n = 10).

Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition.

Observational studies primarily based on diet questionnaires or food records have reported that vegetarians can have a very low I intake. However, analytically ascertained data on the possible degree of I deficiency with this form of diet is lacking. Six healthy adult volunteers participated in the present controlled experimental diet study carried out in four separate 5 d diet periods. The study diets, normal, protein-rich, lactovegetarian, and repeat of the initial normal diet, were almost isoenergetic and contained no fish, sea food, iodized salt or processed foods fortified with I.

Vegetarian dietary practices and endurance performance.

Confounding influences of varying fat, protein, and carbohydrate (CHO) levels, training habits, and lifestyle patterns make the interpretation of specific influences of the diet on endurance performance unclear. In general, exhaustion during prolonged, hard endurance exercise is tied to low muscle glycogen stores. Athletes in heavy training are urged to consume 70% of calories as CHO to maximize body CHO stores. A deemphasis in animal products with an emphasis in high-CHO plant foods would facilitate athletes in conforming to nutritional recommendations.

Albumin synthesis is diminished in men consuming a predominantly vegetarian diet.

Albumin synthesis was calculated in healthy male volunteers consuming diets differing in the relative contribution of protein from animal or vegetable sources. In one study (Study 1, n = 4) two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were consumed for a period of 10 d each. One diet (diet A) was animal protein rich (74%), the other one (diet V) contained 67% of vegetable protein. Albumin synthesis rate was measured from L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine incorporation (43 mg/kg) at the end of each dietary period. Both albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (5.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.

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