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Controlled trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis

Fasting is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but most patients relapse on reintroduction of food. The effect of fasting followed by one year of a vegetarian diet was assessed in a randomised, single-blind controlled trial. 27 patients were allocated to a four-week stay at a health farm. After an initial 7-10 day subtotal fast, they were put on an individually adjusted gluten-free vegan diet for 3.5 months. The food was then gradually changed to a lactovegetarian diet for the remainder of the study.

Urinary hormonal concentrations and spinal bone densities of premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women.

We evaluated the relationships among nutrition, hormone concentrations, and bone density of the spine in 27 vegetarian and 37 nonvegetarian premenopausal women. The two groups were indistinguishable with respect to age, height, weight, menarche, years of formal education, and medical histories. The frequency of menstrual irregularity was significantly higher in the vegetarian group. The bone densities of the vegetarians and the nonvegetarians were not significantly different.

Thermic responses to vegetarian meals and yoga exercise.

The thermic effect (TEF) of vegetarian meals was measured for breakfast and lunch in 6 lean healthy men (18-25 years) during normal feeding (NF) and with 20% overfeeding (OF) on 28 successive days. The energy contents of breakfast were 223 +/- 10 and 330 +/- 48 kcal, and those of lunch were 1,033 +/- 220 and 1,247 +/- 222 kcal in NF and OF, respectively. In NF, the TEF per 180 min was 32.7 +/- 8.6 and 54.8 +/- 6.3 kcal for breakfast and lunch, respectively. In OF, the TEF was 38.3 +/- 8.3 kcal for breakfast and 57.2 +/- 5.4 kcal for lunch.

The influence of a vegetarian diet on the fatty acid composition of human milk and the essential fatty acid status of the infan

Vegan and vegetarian diets supply higher amounts of linoleic acid than those of omnivores. Intakes of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) are variable, depending on the oils used, but are generally high in vegans. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) is absent from vegan and many vegetarian diets. Cord plasma and cord artery phospholipid levels of Hindu vegetarians contained less DHA and more docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) compared with those of omnivore control subjects.

Blunted seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and increased risk of osteomalacia in vegetarian London Asians.

Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in 297 adult Asians and 68 white subjects at different times of year and seasonal variation compared between subjects grouped according to ethnic origin, religion and dietary habit. A sub-group of Asians with symptoms and biochemical changes suggestive of osteomalacia underwent bone biopsy, and static bone histomorphometry was performed. Histological osteomalacia was detected in 15 Asians and borderline changes in 13. The majority of these cases were among vegetarian Hindus.

Lipoprotein risk factors in vegetarian women of Indian descent are unrelated to dietary intake.

Dietary intakes, anthropometric indices and plasma lipoprotein and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were measured in premenopausal vegetarian women of Indian descent (n = 22) and in white women of European descent consuming either mixed (n = 22) or vegetarian diets (n = 18). The Indian women were shorter in height than the white women and had a higher proportion of body fat. Energy intakes were lower in the Indian women, both in absolute terms and per kg body weight.

Axial and peripheral bone density and nutrient intakes of postmenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women.

The study investigated whether differences exist between postmenopausal Caucasian vegetarian and omnivorous women regarding trabecular and cortical bone density measured with single- and dual-photon absorptiometry. Anthropometric measurements, blood and urine samples, and food intakes of the twenty-eight matched pairs were also compared. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated no significant differences in bone measurements between vegetarians and omnivores at any sites except the skull. The vegetarians' serum globulin and total protein measured higher.

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