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Vitamin B-12: low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants.

n a group of 13 strict vegetarian and 6 omnivorous lactating women, relationships were studied among maternal milk and serum vitamin B-12, and milk vitamin B-12 and infant urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. Milk vitamin B-12 concentrations were lower in women consuming a strict vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet. Milk vitamin B-12 was inversely related to length of time on a vegetarian diet and positively correlated with maternal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations.

A special, supplemented 'vegan' diet for nephrotic patients.

High dietary protein intake, in the past recommended for nephrotic syndrome, does not improve hypoproteinemia and may accelerate progressive renal damage. In contrast, low-protein diets reduce proteinuria and preserve renal function in experimental renal models of nephrotic syndrome. In this study, 20 steroid-resistant, nephrotic patients were treated with a pure vegetarian, low-protein diet, supplemented with essential amino acids and ketoanalogues (supplemented vegan diet, SVD) for 4.6 +/- 3.1 months.

Attained height of lacto-ovo vegetarian children and adolescents.

The relationship between diet and attained height was studied in children and adolescents in Southern California. Diet pattern was determined from an extensive food frequency questionnaire in 1765 Caucasian children of 7-18 years, attending state schools (452 m and 443 f) and Seventh-day Adventist schools (427 m and 443 f). The major difference in diet pattern between state and Adventist school children was in meat consumption.

Maternal vegan diet causing a serious infantile neurological disorder due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

We present a 9-month-old exclusively breast-fed baby of a strict vegetarian mother who had excluded all animal proteins from her diet. The patient's symptoms included dystrophy, weakness, muscular atrophy, loss of tendon reflexes, psychomotor regression and haematological abnormalities. Biochemical investigations revealed severe methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria in the patient, slight methylmalonic aciduria in the mother and low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 in both patient and mother

[Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency].

Nine persons in the county of Troms, Norway, were interviewed on their strict vegetarian diet. Improved health was indicated as the main reason for their choice of diet, but religion was a contributing reason for some. Most of the study persons would increase the intake of vitamin B12 if a deficiency state were to occur. One person reported, however, that she would not regard vitamin B12 deficiency as a health problem. The interviews disclosed beliefs regarding human physiology that are very far removed from standard scientific knowledge.

Diet and serum lipids in vegan vegetarians: a model for risk reduction.

The lipid levels and dietary habits of 31 Seventh-Day Adventist vegan vegetarians (aged 5 to 46 years) who consume no animal products were assessed. Mean serum total cholesterol (3.4 mmol/L), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (1.8 mmol/L), and triglyceride (0.8 mmol/L) levels were lower than expected values derived from the Lipid Research Clinics Population Studies prevalence data. Mean high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (1.3 mmol/L) was comparable to expected values.

Immune parameters in male atheletes after a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet and a mixed Western diet.

The influence of a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet versus a meat-rich Western diet on in vitro measures of immune function was studied in eight male endurance athletes. Subjects consumed two different diets for 2 x 6 wk, separated by 4 wk on an ad libitum diet, in a cross-over design. Both diets consisted of 57 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 14 E% protein and 29 E% fat. One diet was a mixed meat-rich diet (M) prepared with 69% animal protein sources, whereas the other diet (V) was a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet prepared with 82% vegetable protein sources.

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