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Carnitine status of lactoovovegetarians and strict vegetarian adults and children.

Because carnitine is contained primarily in meats and dairy products, vegetarian diets provide a model for assessing the impact of prolonged low carnitine intake on carnitine status. Plasma carnitine concentrations and urinary carnitine excretion were measured in adults and children consuming a strict vegetarian, lactoovovegetarian, or mixed diet. In adults plasma carnitine concentration and urinary carnitine excretion of strict vegetarians and lactoovovegetarians were significantly lower than those in the mixed-diet group but were not different from each other.

Relation between vegetarian/nonvegetarian diets and blood pressure in black and white adults.

We examined the possible interaction of race and diet on blood pressure (BP) in volunteer Black Seventh Day Adventists compared to volunteer White church members. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and resting seated BP were recorded in Black vegetarians (n = 55; age: 54.7 +/- 16.9 yrs), Black nonvegetarians (n = 59; 56.1 +/- 14.1 yrs), White vegetarians (n = 164; 52.2 +/- 16.7 yrs), and White nonvegetarians (n = 100; 52.6 +/- 15.6 yrs) attending a regional conference.

Growth of vegetarian children: The Farm Study.

To examine the effects of a vegetarian diet on child growth, height and weight data of 404 vegetarian children aged 4 months to 10 years who lived in a collective community in Tennessee were studied. Height for age, weight for age, and weight for height were compared with the US growth reference. Birth weights, infant feeding patterns, and parental heights were also evaluated in relation to growth. Most of the height for age, weight for age, and weight for height (n = 833) were within the 25th and 75th percentiles of the US growth reference.

Dietary status of Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly women.

The purpose of this study was to investigate nutrient intakes of Seventh-Day Adventist elderly women who were similar in many demographic and life-style factors except for choice of diet. Twenty-three vegetarian and 14 non-vegetarian elderly women (mean +/- standard error ages 72.2 +/- 1.3 and 71.1 +/- 1.4 years, respectively) were recruited on the basis of several selection criteria, including race, religion, education, geographic area, Quetelet index, self-reported absence of major chronic disease and use of medications, and physical activity.

Reduced arachidonate in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters associated with vegetarian diets in humans.

Lipid fractions such as phospholipids (PLs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) represent source pools for eicosanoid synthesis. To determine whether dietary habits affect the enrichment of 20:4n-6 in these precursor pools, we studied humans with partial or complete arachidonate restriction resulting from chronic avoidance of animal fat and tissue. Fasting serum was obtained from omnivorous control subjects (Omni, n = 100), semivegetarians (Semiveg, n = 16), and vegetarians (Veg, n = 25).

The relationship among adiposity, diet, and hormone concentrations in vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women.

The relationships among anthropometric variables, dietary nutrients, and plasma steroid, polypeptide, and binding-protein hormone concentrations were investigated in 24 Seventh-day Adventist postmenopausal women, 12 vegetarian (SV) and 12 nonvegetarian (SNV). Fasting blood and 7-d dietary intake information were collected. SVs consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber and fewer saturated fatty acids than did SNVs. The thigh and sum of three skinfold-thickness measurements were significantly greater for SNVs than for SVs.

Adequacy of a vegetarian diet at old age (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System).

o assess the adequacy of a vegetarian diet at old age, the dietary intake (assessed through dietary history with cross-check) of 44 apparently healthy lacto-(ovo-)vegetarians, aged 65-97 years, was evaluated. Adequacy was assessed by a comparison of nutrient intake with (Dutch) recommendations and by evaluating data on nutritional status. The results were also compared with data of elderly omnivores.

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