AAA - All Designs

Pharmacists' guide to infant formulas for term infants.

OBJECTIVE: To provide pharmacists with the basic knowledge to counsel caregivers in appropriate infant formula selection and use. SUMMARY: Although the majority of infants are initially breast-fed, a transition to infant formula by the age of 6 months, either as a supplement or a replacement for human milk, is common in the United States. Manufacturers have capitalized on this growing demand for infant formulas to more closely mimic human milk by creating a variety of formulations.

Association between history of tuberculosis and vegetarianism from a nationally representative survey in India.

A vegetarian diet has been implicated as a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) among South Asians in the United Kingdom. To explore whether this is also the case in India, we analysed data from the nationally representative National Family Health Survey-3 (2006) which collected information on TB and diet, and tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1. TB was reported by heads of households.

Relationship between essential amino acids and muscle mass, independent of habitual diets, in pre- and post-menopausal US women.

The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the relationship between protein and essential amino acids (EAAs) intake with the level of muscle mass (MM) independent of the diet. Twenty-one omnivores, 22 ovo-lacto-vegetarians and 20 vegans were recruited. MM (urinary creatinine), dietary intake (5-day dietary records) and biochemical analyses (urinary and plasma sex hormones) were obtained. We observed no significant difference between groups for MM, total EAA intake, leucine, isoleucine, age and body mass index.

Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans.

CONTEXT: Adequate dietary iodine is required for normal thyroid function. The iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians and vegans have not been previously studied. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate (inhibitors of thyroid iodine uptake) exposures may adversely affect thyroid function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the iodine status and thyroid function of U.S.

The time for doing is not the time for change: effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change.

Implicit in many informal and formal principles of psychological change is the understudied assumption that change requires either an active approach or an inactive approach. This issue was systematically investigated by comparing the effects of general action goals and general inaction goals on attitude change. As prior attitudes facilitate preparation for an upcoming persuasive message, general action goals were hypothesized to facilitate conscious retrieval of prior attitudes and therefore hinder attitude change to a greater extent than general inaction goals.

B12 in fetal development.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for development of the fetus and child. Pregnant women who are vegetarian or vegan, have Crohn's or celiac disease, or have undergone gastric bypass surgery are at increased risk of B12 deficiency. Low serum levels of B12 have been linked to negative impacts in cognitive, motor, and growth outcomes. Low cobalamin levels also may be related to depression in adults. Some studies indicate that B12 supplementation may improve outcomes in children, although more research is needed in this area.

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