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Characteristics and nutrient intake of Taiwanese elderly vegetarians: evidence from a national survey.

The present study examines the prevalence and characteristics of vegetarians in the Taiwanese elderly. We analysed data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000), which used a multi-staged, stratified, clustered probability sampling design. Community-dwelling elderly (n 1071), aged 65 years and older, were included. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and metabolic variables, and eating habits were obtained through household interviews and health examinations. Nutrient intake was assessed using a 24 h dietary recall.

Low-pH cola beverages do not affect women's iron absorption from a vegetarian meal.

Preliminary data in the literature indicate that iron absorption from a meal may be increased when consumed with low-pH beverages such as cola, and it is also possible that sugar iron complexes may alter iron availability. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted to compare the bioavailability of nonheme iron from a vegetarian pizza meal when consumed with 3 different beverages (cola, diet cola, and mineral water). Sixteen women with serum ferritin concentrations of 11-54 µg/L were recruited and completed the study.

Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: the adventist health study 2.

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to compare dietary patterns in their relationship with metabolic risk factors (MRFs) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 773 subjects (mean age 60 years) from the Adventist Health Study 2 was performed. Dietary pattern was derived from a food frequency questionnaire and classified as vegetarian (35%), semi-vegetarian (16%), and nonvegetarian (49%).

A 21 day Daniel Fast improves selected biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in men and women.

BACKGROUND: Dietary modification via both caloric and nutrient restriction is associated with multiple health benefits, some of which are related to an improvement in antioxidant status and a decrease in the production of reactive oxygen species. The Daniel Fast is based on the Biblical book of Daniel, is commonly partaken for 21 days, and involves food intake in accordance with a stringent vegan diet. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress.

Red meat and colon cancer: should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safer?

The effect of meat consumption on cancer risk is a controversial issue. However, recent meta-analyses show that high consumers of cured meats and red meat are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. This increase is significant but modest (20-30%). Current WCRF-AICR recommendations are to eat no more than 500 g per week of red meat, and to avoid processed meat. Moreover, our studies show that beef meat and cured pork meat promote colon carcinogenesis in rats. The major promoter in meat is heme iron, via N-nitrosation or fat peroxidation.

The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

Urinary biomarkers of meat consumption.

BACKGROUND: Meat intake has been positively associated with incidence and mortality of chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and several different cancers, in observational studies by using self-report methods of dietary assessment; however, these dietary assessment methods are subject to measurement error. One method to circumvent such errors is the use of biomarkers of dietary intake, but currently there are no accepted biomarkers for meat intake.

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