Research Methods

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire: A comparison of five factor solutions across vegan and omnivore participants.

OBJECTIVE: The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a valid and reliable measure of eating-related pathology, but its factor structure has proven difficult to replicate. Given differences in dietary patterns in vegans compared to omnivores, proper measurement of eating disorder symptoms is especially important in studies of animal product avoiders.

Beneficial health effects of lupenone triterpene: A review.

There are a large number of new structure compounds with good pharmacological activity in the natural plants, can be applied to the treatment of human diseases. Finding active ingredients from the plants is one of the important ways to develop new drugs. Triterpenes are widespread in plants, and lupenone belongs to lupane type triterpenoids. Lupenone is very common natural ingredient distributed in multi-family plants including Asteraceae, Balanophoraceae, Cactaceae, Iridaceae, Musaceae, Urticaceae, Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, etc., but its distribution has no regular.

Healthy Plant-Based Diets Are Associated with Lower Risk of All-Cause Mortality in US Adults.

BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets, often referred to as vegetarian diets, are associated with health benefits. However, the association with mortality is less clear.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between plant-based diet indexes and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

The Design, Development and Evaluation of the Vegetarian Lifestyle Index on Dietary Patterns among Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians.

Traditionally, healthful diets and lifestyles have been examined only in relation to single nutrients, foods, or food groups in terms of dietary exposure. An alternative approach is to conceptualize an index based on vegetarian food pyramid guidelines as a measure of overall diet and lifestyle quality. Our objectives were to: (1) develop the Vegetarian Lifestyle Index (VLI); and (2) evaluate adherence to the Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid (VFGP) among a low-risk population of Adventists. The index was based on the operationalization of 14 dietary and lifestyle components.

Lower C-reactive protein and IL-6 associated with vegetarian diets are mediated by BMI.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mechanism by which vegetarian diets are associated with less inflammation is not clear. We investigated the role of BMI as a mediator in the relationship between vegetarian diet and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), and the cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α.

A model of the dynamics of household vegetarian and vegan rates in the U.K.

Although there are many studies of determinants of vegetarianism and veganism, there have been no previous studies of how their rates in a population jointly change over time. In this paper, we present a flexible model of vegetarian and vegan dietary choices, and derive the joint dynamics of rates of consumption. We fit our model to a pseudo-panel with 23 years of U.K. household data, and find that while vegetarian rates are largely determined by current household characteristics, vegan rates are additionally influenced by their own lagged value.

Foods and Supplements Associated with Vitamin B12 Biomarkers among Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Participants of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Calibration Study.

To investigate the association between plasma concentration of vitamin B12 and B12 intake from supplements, fortified foods, and animal source foods among vegetarians and non-vegetarians, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 728 participants of the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) calibration study. The median age of participants was 58 years, 65.4% were female, and 50.3% were White. We used six 24 h dietary recalls to measure B12 intake, serum vitamin B12, and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) concentration.

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