Maternal and Child Health - Children's Growth and Development

Bone status and adipokine levels in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) reflect bone status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Biochemical markers, which show global skeletal activity, were validated for the assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. Adipokines also play a significant role in the regulation of bone metabolism.
OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition, bone mineral density, bone turnover markers and adipokine levels in relation to vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

Impact of a vegan diet on the human salivary microbiota.

Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composition and functional potential of the salivary microbiota in 160 healthy vegans and omnivores using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We further sought to identify bacterial taxa in saliva associated with host inflammatory markers.

Does the impact of a plant-based diet during pregnancy on birth weight differ by ethnicity? A dietary pattern analysis from a prospective Canadian birth cohort alliance.

OBJECTIVE:Birth weight is an indicator of newborn health and a strong predictor of health outcomes in later life. Significant variation in diet during pregnancy between ethnic groups in high-income countries provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the influence of maternal diet on birth weight. SETTING:Four multiethnic birth cohorts based in Canada (the NutriGen Alliance).PARTICIPANTS:3997 full-term mother-infant pairs of diverse ethnic groups who had principal component analysis-derived diet pattern scores-plant-based, Western and health-conscious-and birth weight data.

Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review.

BACKGROUND: Although vegan-vegetarian diets are increasingly popular, no recent systematic reviews on vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy exist. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on vegan-vegetarian diets and pregnancy outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched from inception to September 2013 for pregnancy and vegan or vegetarian Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and free-text terms. SELECTION CRITERIA:Vegan or vegetarian diets in healthy pregnant women.

A longitudinal study of the growth of matched pairs of vegetarian and omnivorous children, aged 7-11 years, in the north-west of England.

OBJECTIVE:To assess the ability of a meat free diet to support normal growth of children. DESIGN:A one year longitudinal observational case--comparison study of growth. SETTING:Children were recruited mainly through schools from Merseyside and all measurements were taken in their homes. SUBJECTS:Fifty 'free-living' children following meat free diets, aged 7-11 y (expected to be pre-pubertal), were compared with a control group of 50 omnivores matched for age, sex and ethnic group. INTERVENTION:None.

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