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Chronic disease among Seventh-day Adventists, a low-risk group. Rationale, methodology, and description of the population.

The Adventist Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 34,198 non-Hispanic white Seventh-day Adventists (13,857 men; 20,341 women, age 25-100 years) followed for 6 years (1977-1982). Within this population, 55.2% were lacto-ovovegetarian (consumed meat, poultry, or fish less than one time per week with no restrictions as to egg or dairy product consumption) in 1976 and most abstained from alcohol, tobacco, and pork products.

Dietary habits and breast cancer incidence among Seventh-day Adventists.

Breast cancer incidence was monitored in a cohort of 20,341 California Seventh-day Adventist women who completed a detailed lifestyle questionnaire in 1976, and who were followed for 6 years. There were 215 histologically confirmed primary breast cancer detected among some 115,000 person-years of follow-up. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years, indicating a primarily postmenopausal case series. Established risk factors for breast cancer showed strong relationships to risk in these data.

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in free-living men: comparison of two prudent diets, one based on lactoovovegetarianism and the other allowing lean meat.

In general, vegetarians have lower serum lipids and blood pressures than omnivores have. We tested the blood pressure and serum lipid lowering effects of two fat-modified diets differing primarily in their source of protein. Twenty-six men were randomized in an incomplete block design to two of three diets: a high-fat diet, a fat-modified lactoovovegetarian diet (LOV) and a diet in which 60% of plant protein in the LOV was replaced with lean meat (LM).

A salt-hypertension hypothesis.

In urban Australia, the risk of retiring with hypertension is greater than 40%, and the basic abnormality--a rise in blood pressure (BP) with age--is almost universal. A hypothesis linking this with salt, therefore, concerns everyone. The diet of early humans was unsalted, and the Na content of breast milk (6 mmol/kg) shows how little NaCl is needed even during the most rapid period of growth.

Shift from a mixed diet to a lactovegetarian diet: influence on some cancer-associated intestinal bacterial enzyme activities.

This investigation studied the effects of a shift from a mixed diet to a lactovegetarian diet on some cancer-associated bacterial enzymes in human feces (beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase, and sulphatase). Three months after the shift to the lactovegetarian diet, there was a significant decrease in beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase, and sulphatase activities per gram feces wet weight (p less than 0.05, less than 0.05, and less than 0.001, respectively).

Paleodietary analysis on the prehistoric population of El Hierro (Canary Islands).

In order to deepen our knowledge of the dietary habits of the prehispanic inhabitants of El Hierro, we have determined bone strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) in 52 human tibiae (23 belonging to males and 20 to females individuals) buried in a single burial cave; in 21 modern individuals who served as controls; and in 11 bones of herbivores found at archeological sites of the Canary Islands.

Cardiovascular risk in vegetarians and omnivores: a comparative study.

BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between eating habits and chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular events, although not all the mechanisms of action are understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the cardiovascular risk (CVR) in vegetarians and omnivores residing in Greater Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, in the age range from 35 to 64 years. METHODS: To evaluate CVR in the groups, a historical cohort study with 201 individuals was conducted.

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