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Nutrient intake and health status of vegans. Chemical analyses of diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique.

A strict vegetarian diet [vegan diet (VD)] was investigated. Six middle-aged vegans (three men and three women) collected copies of 24-h diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. By chemical analyses, the nutrient composition was determined in detail and compared with corresponding figures of a normal mixed Swedish diet. In the VD 30% of the energy originated from fat compared with 40% in normal Swedish mixed diet (MD). Linoleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (60% of total fat in VD versus 8% in MD).

Low blood pressure in vegetarians: the possible role of potassium.

Ninety-eight confirmed adult vegetarians were examined against a matched group of nonvegetarians living in the same urban environment in order to evaluate the prevalence of arterial hypertension. The average blood pressure was 126/77 for the vegetarians and 147/88 for the control group (p less than 0.05). Significantly lower blood pressure was found in every decade of age. Only 2% of the vegetarians had hypertension (higher than 160/95) as compared to 26% hypertensives in the nonvegetarians.

Lack of an effect of dairy protein (casein) and soy protein on plasma cholesterol of strict vegetarians. An experiment and a critical review.

In animals, ingestion of casein, the principal protein in milk, causes hypercholesterolemia, whereas in humans this effect has not been documented. We added 27 g of casein (the amount in 1.1 liters of skim milk and nearly twice the average U.S. intake) for 20 days, and 27 g of soy protein for an additional 20 days to the daily diet of 13 strict vegetarians who consumed no other animal protein during the study period. The protein supplementation increased the ad libitum daily protein intake from 59 g to 82 g.

Dietary fat intake and blood pressure: a double blind controlled trial of changing polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio.

The effect on blood pressure of elevating the dietary polyunsaturated/saturated fat (P/S) ratio was assessed in a double-blind, randomized control trial. Fifty-four healthy, normotensive volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years were randomly allocated either to a control group who ate a low P/S ratio diet throughout, or to one of two experimental groups who ate a high P/S ratio diet for one of two six-week experimental periods. Other nutrient changes were avoided.

Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians have a quiescent proliferative activity in colonic mucosa.

The proliferation of epithelial cells in colonic mucosa was studied in humans at varying degrees of risk for colon cancer. Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians, known to have significantly lower mortality from colon cancer than the general U.S. population, had the most quiescent proliferative activity of mucosal epithelial cells. Increased replication and expansion of the proliferative compartment accompanied increased colon cancer risk.

Diet, lipoproteins and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. The Leiden Intervention Trial.

The relationship between diet, serum lipoproteins, and the progression of coronary lesions was studied in 39 patients with stable angina pectoris in whom coronary arteriography had shown at least 1 vessel with 50% obstruction before intervention. Intervention consisted of a 2-year vegetarian diet that had a ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids of at least 2.0, and that contained less than 100mg of cholesterol per day.

Controlled study of the effects of dietary protein on blood pressure in normotensive humans.

1. The object of this study was to determine whether meat protein per se is responsible for the higher blood pressures (BP) in omnivores compared with vegetarians. 2. Assessments were made by a double blind randomized control trial in 64 normotensive volunteers recruited from Royal Perth Hospital staff. 3. All volunteers were given a 'meat' substitute during the 2 week control period.

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