Specifics related to metabolism
Approximately 20 %-25 % of adults worldwide have metabolic syndrome. Vegetarian and vegan diets have demonstrated effectiveness in improving body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors, as compared with conventional therapeutic approaches, and are potentially useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008.
To investigate whether the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet has protective effects on metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation.
Voluntary intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate (CHO) was modified by feeding young rats either a control purified diet [% metabolizable energy (ME): protein 21, fat 7, CHO 72], a control diet plus sucrose solution (20%) to drink (final intakes 17, 6 and 77% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively) or a low protein diet substituted with either CHO (8, 7 and 85% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively) or fat (8, 20 and 72% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively).
Weanling (22-day-old) rats fed a low protein (8% casein) diet consumed the same amount of energy as controls (22% casein diet), but intake corrected for body size (kJ/kg0.75) was increased in the former group. Weight gain and the efficiency of gain (g gain/MJ) were markedly reduced in low protein fed rats. Resting oxygen consumption (VO2) was elevated by 15% in the low protein group but this difference was completely abolished by beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol.
The purpose of our work is to compare the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thermogenic effect of food (TEF) in a group of vegetarians and a group of subjects consuming a Mediterranean diet. The composition of the diets was similar. Thirty-two subjects were studied: 16 vegetarians (age 34 +/- 9 years, BMI 21 +/- 2) and 16 omnivors (age 30 +/- 5 years, BMI 22 +/- 3). All were in excellent general health. Each subject consumed a dish of pasta (100 g) and bread (30 g) after RMR had been measured. TEF was measured over the next 3 h and calculated as the incremental area above RMR.
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