Nutritional Adequacy of Plant-Based Diets

Foods and Supplements Associated with Vitamin B12 Biomarkers among Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Participants of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Calibration Study.

To investigate the association between plasma concentration of vitamin B12 and B12 intake from supplements, fortified foods, and animal source foods among vegetarians and non-vegetarians, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 728 participants of the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) calibration study. The median age of participants was 58 years, 65.4% were female, and 50.3% were White. We used six 24 h dietary recalls to measure B12 intake, serum vitamin B12, and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) concentration.

Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk.

BACKGROUND: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers.

The significant role of amino acids during pregnancy: nutritional support.

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and infant health outcome. Normal fetal growth and development depend on a continuous supply of nutrients via the placenta. The placenta transports, utilizes, produces, and interconverts amino acids (AAs).

Vitamin B-12 content in breast milk of vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian lactating women in the United States.

BACKGROUND: The nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian. DESIGN: A total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalences of low vitamin B-12 (<310 pmol/L) were 19.2% for vegans, 18.2% for vegetarian

Methylmalonic Acid Levels and their Relation with Cobalamin Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians.

Cobalamin deficiency represents a health issue for vegetarians, especially vegans, if supplements are not consumed. Vitamin B12 serum levels, traditionally used to assess the vitamin B12 status, can be normal under functional deficiency conditions. In this regard, methylmalonic acid (MMA) has proven to be a more specific marker to detect subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency. In this study, we present for the first time the cobalamin status of Spanish vegetarians using both vitamin B12 and MMA markers, and the effects of the plant-based diet and the intake of vitamin B12 supplements.

Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition.

BACKGROUND:Interest in vegetarian diets is growing in Italy and elsewhere, as government agencies and health/nutrition organizations are emphasizing that regular consumption of plant    foods may provide health benefits and help prevent certain diseases.

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets.

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage.

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