Maternal and Child Health

Vitamin B-12 content in breast milk of vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian lactating women in the United States.

BACKGROUND: The nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian. DESIGN: A total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalences of low vitamin B-12 (<310 pmol/L) were 19.2% for vegans, 18.2% for vegetarian

A Vegetarian Diet Is a Major Determinant of Gut Microbiota Composition in Early Pregnancy.

The composition of the gut microbiota can be influenced by dietary composition. In pregnancy, the maternal gut microbiome has associations with maternal and infant metabolic status. There is little known regarding the impact of a vegetarian diet in pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota. This study explored the gut microbiota profile in women who were vegetarian or omnivorous in early gestation. Women were selected from participants in the Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes (SPRING) randomised controlled trial.

Does the impact of a plant-based diet during pregnancy on birth weight differ by ethnicity? A dietary pattern analysis from a prospective Canadian birth cohort alliance.

OBJECTIVE:Birth weight is an indicator of newborn health and a strong predictor of health outcomes in later life. Significant variation in diet during pregnancy between ethnic groups in high-income countries provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the influence of maternal diet on birth weight. SETTING:Four multiethnic birth cohorts based in Canada (the NutriGen Alliance).PARTICIPANTS:3997 full-term mother-infant pairs of diverse ethnic groups who had principal component analysis-derived diet pattern scores-plant-based, Western and health-conscious-and birth weight data.

Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review.

BACKGROUND: Although vegan-vegetarian diets are increasingly popular, no recent systematic reviews on vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy exist. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on vegan-vegetarian diets and pregnancy outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched from inception to September 2013 for pregnancy and vegan or vegetarian Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and free-text terms. SELECTION CRITERIA:Vegan or vegetarian diets in healthy pregnant women.

Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review

BACKGROUND:
Although vegan-vegetarian diets are increasingly popular, no recent systematic reviews on vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy exist.

OBJECTIVES:
To review the literature on vegan-vegetarian diets and pregnancy outcomes.

SEARCH STRATEGY:
PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched from inception to September 2013 for pregnancy and vegan or vegetarian Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and free-text terms.

Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions.

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