Heart Disease and Stroke - Mechanisms/Disease Processes

Specifics relating to the development of heart disease and disease mechanisms

Plant-based diets: Reducing cardiovascular risk by improving sleep quality?

Purpose of review:The goal of this review is to evaluate recent research related to the effects of plant-based diets on sleep patterns. We discuss plausible mechanisms for the link between plant-based diets and sleep, and provide suggestions for future research in this area. Recent findings:Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been shown to negatively affect individual dietary habits, through enhanced appetite, increased overall caloric intake, as well as lower diet quality.

Association of vegetarian diet with inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

OBJECTIVE: Vegetarian diets contain various anti-inflammatory components. We aimed to investigate the effects of vegetarianism on inflammatory biomarkers when compared with omnivores. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Literature search was conducted in Science Direct, Proquest, MEDLINE and Google Scholar up to June 2016. Summary estimates and corresponding 95 % CI were derived via the DerSimonian and Laird method using random effects, subgroup analyses were run to find the source of heterogeneity and a fixed-effect model examined between-subgroup heterogeneity.

Mechanisms involved in cardiovascular protection associated with a vegetarian diet.

Dear Editor: Navarro et al. have carried out a very interesting study to show that a vegetarian diet is associated to lower circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in healthy subjects [1]. The findings reported in this study potentially are of major clinical relevance because they strongly suggest that a vegetarian diet may prevent the activation of critical mechanisms involved not only in cardiovascular diseases but also in a variety of malignant neoplastic diseases associated with increased MMP activity [2]. However, we would like to offer...

Effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function in healthy subjects.

Although there is a well-established relation between serum cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk, individual and national variations in this association suggest that other factors are involved in atherogenesis. High-fat diet associated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have also been suggested to be atherogenic.

The moderate essential amino acid restriction entailed by low-protein vegan diets may promote vascular health by stimulating FGF21 secretion.

The serum total and LDL cholesterol levels of long-term vegans tend to be very low. The characteristically low ratio of saturated to unsaturated fat in vegan diets, and the absence of cholesterol in such diets, clearly contribute to this effect. But there is reason to suspect that the quantity and composition of dietary protein also play a role in this regard. Vegan diets of moderate protein intake tend to be relatively low in certain essential amino acids, and as a result may increase hepatic activity of the kinase GCN2, which functions as a gauge of amino acid status.

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