Heart Disease and Stroke - Mechanisms/Disease Processes

Specifics relating to the development of heart disease and disease mechanisms

The Effect of On-Line Hemodiafiltration, Vegetarian Diet, and Urine Volume on Advanced Glycosylation End Products Measured by Changes in Skin Auto-Fluorescence.

Increasing urea clearance by hemodialysis (HD) has not improved patient survival. Hemodiafiltration (HDF) has been reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality. HDF increases middle sized solute clearances. Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We wished to determine whether HDF reduces AGEs. Skin auto-fluorescence (SAF) measures circulating AGEs deposited in the skin. We compared SAF measurements 12 months apart in high flux HD and HDF patients. At enrollment SAF was not different (HD 3.34 ± 0.71 vs. HDF 3.48 ± 1.05 AU).

Lower C-reactive protein and IL-6 associated with vegetarian diets are mediated by BMI.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mechanism by which vegetarian diets are associated with less inflammation is not clear. We investigated the role of BMI as a mediator in the relationship between vegetarian diet and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), and the cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α.

Plant-based diets: Reducing cardiovascular risk by improving sleep quality?

Purpose of review:The goal of this review is to evaluate recent research related to the effects of plant-based diets on sleep patterns. We discuss plausible mechanisms for the link between plant-based diets and sleep, and provide suggestions for future research in this area. Recent findings:Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been shown to negatively affect individual dietary habits, through enhanced appetite, increased overall caloric intake, as well as lower diet quality.

Association of vegetarian diet with inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

OBJECTIVE: Vegetarian diets contain various anti-inflammatory components. We aimed to investigate the effects of vegetarianism on inflammatory biomarkers when compared with omnivores. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Literature search was conducted in Science Direct, Proquest, MEDLINE and Google Scholar up to June 2016. Summary estimates and corresponding 95 % CI were derived via the DerSimonian and Laird method using random effects, subgroup analyses were run to find the source of heterogeneity and a fixed-effect model examined between-subgroup heterogeneity.

Mechanisms involved in cardiovascular protection associated with a vegetarian diet.

Dear Editor: Navarro et al. have carried out a very interesting study to show that a vegetarian diet is associated to lower circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in healthy subjects [1]. The findings reported in this study potentially are of major clinical relevance because they strongly suggest that a vegetarian diet may prevent the activation of critical mechanisms involved not only in cardiovascular diseases but also in a variety of malignant neoplastic diseases associated with increased MMP activity [2]. However, we would like to offer...

Effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function in healthy subjects.

Although there is a well-established relation between serum cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk, individual and national variations in this association suggest that other factors are involved in atherogenesis. High-fat diet associated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have also been suggested to be atherogenic.

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