Studies that relate to population-based data on heart disease prevalance and incidence
BACKGROUND: Few previous prospective studies have examined differences in incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association of a vegetarian diet with risk of incident (nonfatal and fatal) IHD. DESIGN: A total of 44,561 men and women living in England and Scotland who were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, of whom 34% consumed a vegetarian diet at baseline, were part of the analysis.
Mean fasting plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides were 6, 7, and 19% lower (NS) in 36 vegetarian males compared to 18 nonvegetarian males of similar age, weight, height, alcohol consumption, and physical activity levels. None of the participants smoked. Although the vegetarian subjects were characterized by widely differing egg consumption levels, no relationships were observed between dietary or egg cholesterol intakes and plasma lipid levels.
Many epidemiologists have found a correlation between copper and zinc in the community environment and diseases, such as myocardial and vascular pathologies, and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the total daily intake of these two metals in cooked food, drinking water and air and their respective levels in blood and urine. A chronobiological methodology has been adopted to establish the reference values of these two metals in biological samples. It has been observed that the daily intake of copper is within the recommended value, whereas its urinary excretion is high.
Vegetarians have an apparent diminished risk for the development of ischemic coronary heart disease. This may be secondary to dietary effects of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, but platelets, which may also play a role, have also been observed to have aberrant functions in vegetarians. We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, platelet function, platelet fatty acid levels, and platelet active prostaglandins in ten strict vegetarians (vegans), 15 lactovegetarians, and 25 age- and sex-matched omnivorous controls.
A vegetarian diet has a positive effect on various risk factors for coronary artery disease: these include usually lower average body weight, lower total and LDL cholesterol levels, and lower blood pressure. In conjunction with a generally more healthy way of life (more exercise, less alcohol and tobacco use), vegetarians have roughly 30% reduction in overall mortality. The prevalence of bronchial, colon and breast cancer is also lower.
Major risk factors for coronary heart disease were assessed in two populations of Tanzania, one on a fish diet (FD) living along the coast of Lake Nyasa, and the other, mainly on a vegetarian diet (VD), living in a farming area. Lower blood pressure values were found in the FD subjects (n = 618) vs. VD (n = 618) (systolic blood pressure, SBP, 120 +/- 15 vs. 135 +/- 20, P < 0.01; diastolic blood pressure, DBP, 70 +/- 9 vs. 78 +/- 11, P < 0.01, respectively). In an FD subgroup (n = 61), total cholesterol (TC) (122 vs. 136 mg/dL, P < 0.01); triglycerides (TG) (82 vs.
BACKGROUND:There is evidence that populations with a high intake of fish, and specifically fish oils, are at reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. To explore the effect of fish intake, we compared two groups of Bantu villagers in Tanzania; one group live on the shores of Lake Nyasa and their diet includes large amounts of freshwater fish; the other group live in the nearby hills and have a vegetarian diet. METHODS:We carried out a cross-sectional study of 622 fish-consuming villagers and 686 vegetarian villagers. 618 (99.4%) and 645 (94.0%), respectively, agreed to take part.
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