Heart Disease and Stroke - Dietary Interventions

Dietary interventions with heart disease patients

Plant-based diet, serum fatty acid profile, and free radicals in postmenopausal women: the diet and androgens (DIANA) randomized trial.

High calorie and fat consumption and the production of free radicals are two major mechanistic pathways between diet and disease. In this study we evaluated the effect of a plant-based diet poor in animal fat and rich in (n-3) fatty acids on fatty acids of serum phospholipids and on the production of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs). One hundred and four healthy female postmenopausal volunteers were recruited and randomized to a dietary intervention or a control group. Dietary intervention included a program of food education and biweekly common meals for 18 weeks.

Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial.

BACKGROUND: A vegetarian diet may lead to numerous health benefits, including weight loss. OBJECTIVE:We examined the joint effects of personal preference of dietary treatment and a calorie-restricted, low-fat lactoovovegetarian diet (LOV-D) compared with a standard calorie-restricted, low-fat omnivorous diet (STD-D) on changes in weight, total cholesterol, ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol (LDL:HDL cholesterol), triacylglycerols, insulin resistance, and macronutrient intake during an 18-mo study.

Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study.

INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on blood lipids oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and natural atheroprotective antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PCs). METHODS:Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomly assigned to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 year. Thirty patients in the vegan group completed more than 3 months on the diet regimen.

Consequences of a plant-based diet with low dairy consumption on intake of bone-relevant nutrients.

OBJECTIVE:This study examines the extent to which a plant-based dietary intervention that discourages consumption of dairy products and meat influences bone-relevant nutrients. METHODS:A randomized controlled study design was used to evaluate the Coronary Health Improvement Project. The Project is a heart disease prevention intervention administered in an intensive 40-hour educational course delivered over a 4-week period. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months.

Reducing heart disease through the vegetarian diet using primary prevention.

PURPOSE:To evaluate research on the vegetarian diet for its safety, effectiveness in reducing heart disease, special considerations, contraindications, and its association with decreased cardiovascular disease risk. DATA SOURCES:Selected research and evidence-based dietary guidelines found by searching CINAHL, PubMed, Ovid databases, and the World Wide Web. CONCLUSIONS:A carefully planned vegetarian diet with adequate supplementation may be effective for primary prevention of heart disease. The vegetarian diet is cost effective, safe, and relatively easy to implement.

Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.

Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality.

A multicomponent intervention reduces body weight and cardiovascular risk at a GEICO corporate site.

PURPOSE: To determine whether a multicomponent nutrition intervention program at a corporate site reduces body weight and improves other cardiovascular risk factors in overweight individuals. DESIGN: Prospective clinical intervention study. SUBJECTS/SETTING:Employees of the Government Employees Insurance Company (GEICO) (N = 113), aged 21 to 65 years, with a body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2) and/or previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTION: A 22-week intervention including a low-fat, vegan diet.

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