Dietary interventions with heart disease patients
OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a strictly vegetarian, very low-fat diet on cardiac risk factor modification. METHODS:Five hundred men and women, participants in an intensive 12-day live-in program, were studied. The program focused on dietary modification, moderate exercise, and stress management at a hospital-based health-center.
The spectrum of lipids in 20 patients with dyslipoproteinemia type IIa and IIb (group I and group II) was studied. The patients were treated for 24 days with a lactoovovegetarian diet used for the first time in the country. No drugs were employed. A decrease in the levels of cholesterol, atherogenic lipoproteins and atherogenic coefficient was observed after the treatment. The patients, who were offered a questionnaire highly appreciated the diet.
The purpose of this double-blind study was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], devoid of any eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)], on serum/platelet DHA status, the estimated retroconversion of DHA to EPA, and risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects. Healthy vegetarians (12 male, 12 female) consumed nine capsules daily of either DHA (1.62 g/d) or corn oil for 6 wk.
The clinical status of 30 patients suffering from ischemic heart disease, their serum lipids and other biochemical parameters, exercise tolerance were studied. 20 patients from the group were on a specially developed antiatherosclerosis vegetarian diet VA-1; the control group comprised 10 patients who had a mixed diet A-1. It is shown that the vegetarian diet used made it possible to normalize the serum lipid spectrum, the levels of the blood pressure, to increase the tolerance to exercise, to eliminate functional disturbances of the digestive system.
In participants of a comprehensive residential three month yoga and mediation training programme living on a low fat lacto-vegetarian diet changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones were studied. Substantial risk factor reduction was found. Body mass index, total serum and LDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, and blood pressure were significantly reduced especially in those with elevated levels.
The effects of an atherogenic vegetarian diet enriched by soya-based products were investigated for the first time in this country. Clinical status and biochemical parameters of 32 patients suffering from coronary heart disease were studied. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were on the diet for 11-17, 19-22 and 30-40 days, respectively. Hyperlipidemic medicines were discontinued. The vegetarian diet resulted in normalization of the serum lipid spectrum. The most pronounced effect was achieved in group III.
Obesity, strongly associated with the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), is becoming increasingly prevalent. This study was designed to establish first whether systemic arterial compliance (SAC), an index of arterial function, is improved with weight loss and second, whether cardiovascular risk factors that improve with weight loss are reduced equally with lean meat or with an equivalent amount of plant protein in the diet.
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