Dietary interventions with heart disease patients
The Lifestyle Heart Trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle changes may lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year.
To determine the feasibility of patients to sustain intensive lifestyle changes for a total of 5 years and the effects of these lifestylechanges (without lipid-lowering drugs) on coronary heart disease.
Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1986 to 1992 using a randomized invitational design.
IMPORTANCE Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and lower blood pressure (BP), but the relationship is not well established. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials and observational studies that have examined the association between vegetarian diets and BP. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched for articles published in English from 1946 to October 2013 and from 1900 to November 2013, respectively.
Lung cancer and cardiovascular disease are major causes of death in the United States. It has been proposed that carotenoids and retinoids are agents that may prevent these disorders.
A comprehensive ecologic survey of dietary, life-style, and mortality characteristics of 65 counties in rural China showed that diets are substantially richer in foods of plant origin when compared with diets consumed in the more industrialized, Western societies. Mean intakes of animal protein (about one-tenth of the mean intake in the United States as energy percent), total fat (14.5% of energy), and dietary fiber (33.3 g/d) reflected a substantial preference for foods of plant origin. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration, at a3.23-3.49 mmol/L, corresponds to this dietary life- style.
The effect of a virtually cholesterol-free, high-linoleic-acid vegetarian diet and a high-linoleic-acid "normal" diet with a moderate cholesterol content was tested in 39 children heterozygote for hypercholesterolemia type II-A. The diets were administered in an outpatient cross-over design of two periods of 10 weeks each and the serum lipoproteins were analyzed at the end of the two 10-week periods. The vegetarian diet induced a decrease in serum concentrations of LDL-II total and free cholesterol and of apo-B, by an average of 10%, whereas HDL cholesterol and apo-A-I decreased by 4%.
Nine healthy subjects taking an average mixed "Western" diet were placed on a vegetarian diet poor in arachidonic acid for four weeks. All animal and marine foods except for cows milk and milk products were excluded. Platelet aggregation responses to arachidonic acid and epinephrine increased slightly whereas responses to ADP and collagen were unchanged. Platelet thromboxane production, platelet counts, serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides did not change but total and HDL serum cholesterol levels fell significantly.
The effect of intervention with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet on serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoprotein-B, apoprotein-HDL, and Lp(a) was studied in 19 men and 17 women. Most weekday meals were obtained from a single source and dietary records were completed to assess the changes in nutrient intakes. Blood was collected in the 6th wk of each dietary period.
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Pursuing professional training or graduate work is a challenging path - and it can be even more challenging if you're interested in pursuing something as unusual as plant-based nutrition!
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