Adequacy - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B-12 content in breast milk of vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian lactating women in the United States.

BACKGROUND: The nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian. DESIGN: A total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalences of low vitamin B-12 (<310 pmol/L) were 19.2% for vegans, 18.2% for vegetarian

Methylmalonic Acid Levels and their Relation with Cobalamin Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians.

Cobalamin deficiency represents a health issue for vegetarians, especially vegans, if supplements are not consumed. Vitamin B12 serum levels, traditionally used to assess the vitamin B12 status, can be normal under functional deficiency conditions. In this regard, methylmalonic acid (MMA) has proven to be a more specific marker to detect subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency. In this study, we present for the first time the cobalamin status of Spanish vegetarians using both vitamin B12 and MMA markers, and the effects of the plant-based diet and the intake of vitamin B12 supplements.

Plant-Based Diets: A Physician’s Guide

Because of the ever-increasing body of evidence in support of the health advantages of plant-based nutrition, there is a need for guidance on implementing its practice. This article provides physicians and other health care practitioners an overview of the myriad benefits of a plant-based diet as well as details on how best to achieve a well-balanced, nutrient-dense meal plan.

Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health.

Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians.

Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively.

How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both.

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