Association of Habitually Low Intake of Dietary Calcium with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in a Population with Predominantly Plant-Based Diets.


Liu Z, Fang A, He J, Shen X, Gao R, Zhao X, Li K

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This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years or older in this analysis. Food intakes were measured by 3-day 24-h individual recalls combined with a weighing and measuring of household food inventory. The participants were divided into normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to their mean blood pressure of three repeated measurements. Six intake levels were decided by percentiles of gender-specific dietary calcium intakes (P0⁻10, P10⁻30, P30⁻50, P50⁻70, P70⁻90, and P90⁻100). Average dietary calcium intakes were 405 mg/day for men and 370 mg/day for women, 80% and 84% of which were derived from plant-based food in men and women, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that dietary calcium intakes were not related with blood pressure in both genders (all P > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed a lower risk of pre-hypertension with higher dietary calcium intakes in women (all Pfor trend < 0.001), but not in men; no association between dietary calcium intake and hypertensive risk was found in both genders (all Pfor trend > 0.05). This study suggests that there are no conclusive associations of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk in Chinese individuals consuming predominantly plant-based diets.