Long-term Low Intake of Dietary Calcium and Fracture Risk in Older Adults with Plant-Based Diet: A Longitudinal Study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

China Health and Nutrition Survey; dietary calcium; epidemiological study; fracture prevention; plant-based diet

The role of low acid load in vegetarian diet on bone health: a narrative review.

Vegetarian and vegan diets contain low amounts of protein and calcium. For this reason they are supposed to cause low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. But this is not the case, except for vegans with a particularly low calcium intake. The absence of osteoporosis or low BMD can be explained by the low acid load of these diets. Nutritional acid load is negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and positively with fracture risk. Low acid load is correlated with lower bone resorption and higher BMD.

Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. DESIGN: Cohort studies. SETTING: Three counties in central Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997.

Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: a hypothesis.

Age-adjusted female hip fracture incidence has been noted to be higher in industrialized countries than in nonindustrialized countries. A possible explanation that has received little attention is that elevated metabolic acid production associated with a high animal protein diet might lead to chronic bone buffering and bone dissolution. In an attempt to examine this hypothesis, cross-cultural variations in animal protein consumption and hip fractureincidence were examined.

Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods.

Hip fracture, a major health problem in elderly persons, varies in incidence among the populations of different countries and is directly related to animal protein intake, a finding that suggests that bone integrity is compromised by endogenous acid production consequent to the metabolism of animal proteins. If that is so, vegetable foods might provide a countervailing effect, because they are a rich source of base (bicarbonate) in the form of metabolizable organic anions, which can neutralize protein-derived acid and supply substrate (carbonate) for bone formation.

Risk of nutritional rickets among vegetarian children

Records of the dietary intake of 52 preschool vegetarian children seen from 1974 to 1976 revealed that macrobiotic vegetarian diets provided amounts of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus that were marginal as well as less than the amounts provided by other vegetarian diets. Vitamin D supplements were rarely given. Two subjects had roentgenographic evidence of rickets.


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