Review

Dietary calcium: adequacy of a vegetarian diet.

Obtaining sufficient amounts of absorbable dietary calcium to optimize bone density and to protect against bone resorption is a protective measure to lower the risk of osteoporosis. This goal is difficult in Western-style diets without the inclusion of dairy foods, fortified foods, or supplements. Lactovegetarians are able to meet recommended calcium intakes and do not have compromised bone mineral densities. Few other foods provide concentrated sources of absorbable calcium. Estimates of the absorbable calcium content of several plant foods are provided.

Development of a vegetarian food guide

In the past several years there has been an increase in the number of people who avoid some or all animal products for food. Dietary guides that include animal foods are not designed for vegetarian eating patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a food guide to be used by nutrition educators in assessing the adequacy of vegetarian diets in an educational or clinical setting and to be used to teach interested individuals how to plan an adequate vegetarian diet. The steps followed in developing the food guide are outlined.

Vegetarian eating patterns: science, values, and food choices--where do we go from here?

Many aspects of vegetarian diets are currently of interest from a health standpoint. It is becoming increasingly important to recognize that both values and scientific issues come into play in evaluating data on diet and nutrition

Vegetarian diet components, protein and blood pressure: which nutrients are important?

1. Evidence that vegetarian dietary patterns lower blood pressure (BP) comes from both population studies and randomized controlled trials in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. 2. The effect has been shown most clearly in those who keep to a strict lacto-ovo vegetarian diet characterized by a relatively low intake of saturated fat, a high polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio, and a high intake of fruit, vegetables and other fibre containing products.

[Effects of a vegetarian life style on health].

A vegetarian diet has a positive effect on various risk factors for coronary artery disease: these include usually lower average body weight, lower total and LDL cholesterol levels, and lower blood pressure. In conjunction with a generally more healthy way of life (more exercise, less alcohol and tobacco use), vegetarians have roughly 30% reduction in overall mortality. The prevalence of bronchial, colon and breast cancer is also lower.

[Influence of the diet on cell proliferation in the large bowel and the rectum. Does a strict vegetarian diet reduct the risk of intestinal cancer?].

Colorectal cancers are the most frequent cancer in Norway for men and women combined. Several theories have been suggested as etiological explanations. In this review the influence of dietary factors on the cell proliferation rate has been evaluated. A higher cell proliferation rate is statistically associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Foods associated with a lower cell proliferation rate match the staple foods in parts of the world were the incidence of colorectal cancer is low. Vegetarians show a low rate of cell proliferation, and low incidence of colorectal cancer.

Choosing plants to be grown in a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) based upon attractive vegetarian diets.

Space explorers on the Moon, Mars, or even in a space craft might grow plants in a CELSS to remove CO2 and provide O2 and food. Selection of crops to be studied has been rather arbitrary but should be based on plants that can provide a balanced and attractive, mostly vegetarian diet. Additional selection criteria include ease of growth in artificial environments and sufficient variety provided over long intervals. This article is based on a workshop convened to study vegetarian diets for use in a CELSS.

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