Review

Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health.

Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians.

Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12.

Can food be addictive? Public health and policy implications.

AIMS: Data suggest that hyperpalatable foods may be capable of triggering an addictive process. Although the addictive potential of foods continues to be debated, important lessons learned in reducing the health and economic consequences of drug addiction may be especially useful in combating food-related problems.
METHODS: In the current paper, we review the potential application of policy and public health approaches that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive substances to food-related problems.

DHA status of vegetarians.

BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) is absent from vegan diets and present in limited amounts in vegetarian diets.
OBJECTIVE: To review DHA status in vegetarians and vegans.
DESIGN: To identify published studies and review their findings.

Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: a hypothesis.

Age-adjusted female hip fracture incidence has been noted to be higher in industrialized countries than in nonindustrialized countries. A possible explanation that has received little attention is that elevated metabolic acid production associated with a high animal protein diet might lead to chronic bone buffering and bone dissolution. In an attempt to examine this hypothesis, cross-cultural variations in animal protein consumption and hip fractureincidence were examined.

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