Review

Operationalising the health aspects of sustainable diets: a review.

OBJECTIVE: Shifting towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern is an important strategy to mitigate climate change. In the past decade, various studies have optimised environmentally sustainable diets using different methodological approaches. The aim of the present review was to categorise and summarise the different approaches to operationalise the health aspects of environmentally sustainable diets. DESIGN: Conventional keyword and reference searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and CAB Abstracts.

Plant-Based Nutrition: An Essential Component of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and discuss the role of plant-based nutrition as an adjunct to the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Discussion of nutrition and the benefits of a plant-based diet should be highlighted during healthcare provider visits as an essential part of the overall CVD prevention and management care plan. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from prospective cohort studies indicates that a high consumption of predominantly plant-based foods, such as fruit and vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, is associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD.

Mechanisms involved in cardiovascular protection associated with a vegetarian diet

Dear Editor: Navarro et al. have carried out a very interesting study to show that a vegetarian diet is associated to lower circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in healthy subjects [1]. The findings reported in this study potentially are of major clinical relevance because they strongly suggest that a vegetarian diet may prevent the activation of critical mechanisms involved not only in cardiovascular diseases but also in a variety of malignant neoplastic diseases associated with increased MMP activity [2].

Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.

Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption.

A Comprehensive Review of the Literature Supporting Recommendations From the Canadian Diabetes Association for the Use of a Plant-Based Diet for Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered one of the fastest growing diseases in Canada, representing a serious public health concern. Thus, clinicians have begun targeting modifiable risk factors to manage type 2 diabetes, including dietary patterns such as a plant-based diets (PBDs). The Canadian Diabetes Association has included PBDs among the recommended dietary patterns to be used in medical nutrition therapy for persons with type 2 diabetes.

Plant-Based Diets: A Physician’s Guide

Because of the ever-increasing body of evidence in support of the health advantages of plant-based nutrition, there is a need for guidance on implementing its practice. This article provides physicians and other health care practitioners an overview of the myriad benefits of a plant-based diet as well as details on how best to achieve a well-balanced, nutrient-dense meal plan.

Vegetarian diets and gut microbiota: important shifts in markers of metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

Vegetarian diets have been associated with a lower incidence of several chronic diseases. The benefits of plant-based diets are related mainly to the improvement of metabolic parameters that can indicate risk for such diseases. Some metabolic factors, such as oxidative balance, lipid profile, and glucose homeostasis, can be improved directly by diet, but paradoxically, some characteristics of vegetarian diets may promote a negative scenario that increases the risk of certain chronic diseases.

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