Review

Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.

Amino acids modulate the secretion of both insulin and glucagon; the composition of dietary protein therefore has the potential to influence the balance of glucagon and insulin activity. Soy protein, as well as many other vegan proteins, are higher in non-essential amino acids than most animal-derived food proteins, and as a result should preferentially favor glucagon production.

Clinical practice: vegetarian infant and child nutrition.

The aim of this review is to give insight on the benefits and risks of vegetarianism, with special emphasis on vegetarian child nutrition. This eating pattern excluding meat and fish is being adopted by a growing number of people. A vegetarian diet has been shown to be associated with lower mortality of ischaemic heart disease and lower prevalence of obesity. Growth in children on a vegetarian diet including dairy has been shown to be similar to omnivorous peers.

Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review

OBJECTIVE:To review the epidemiological evidence for vegetarian diets, low-meat dietary patterns and their association with health status in adults. DESIGN:Published literature review focusing primarily on prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the association between vegetarian diets and health outcomes. RESULTS:Both vegetarian diets and prudent diets allowing small amounts of red meat are associated with reduced risk of diseases, particularly CHD and type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence of an association between vegetarian diets and cancer prevention.

Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.

Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality.

Four therapeutic diets: adherence and acceptability.

Many health conditions are treated, at least in part, by therapeutic diets. Although the success of any intervention depends on its acceptability to the patient, the acceptability of therapeutic diets and factors that influence it have been largely neglected in nutrition research. A working definition of acceptability is proposed and an examination and summary are provided of available data on the acceptability of common diet regimens used for medical conditions. The goal is to suggest ways to improve the success of therapeutic diets.

Changing the treatment paradigm for coronary artery disease.

This supplement to The American Journal of Cardiology presents the proceedings of the Summit on Cholesterol and Coronary Disease: Second National Conference on Lipids in the Elimination and Preven tion of Coronary Artery Disease presented by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in cooperation with the Walt Disney Company in Lake Buena Vista, florida, September 4--5, 1997.

More than coronary artery disease.

[There is] an unreasonable gap between the medical enthusiasm devoted to acute interventions and the meager efforts currently devoted to secondary prevention. -- Rene C. Favaloro, MD Pioneer of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Interventional cardiology is symptomatic treatment. The late Dr. Lewis Thomas referred to this ap proach as "half-way technology," meaning that basic mechanisms of disease were not identified or treated. The bypass operation has significant mortality and morbidity, including further heart damage, stroke, and brain dysfunction.

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