Randomized Controlled Trial (Crossover)

Mediterranean versus vegetarian diet for cardiovascular disease prevention (the CARDIVEG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND:
Nutrition is able to alter the cardiovascular health of the general population. However, the optimal dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention is still far from being defined. Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are those reporting the greatest grade of evidence in the literature, but no experimental studies comparing these two dietary patterns are available.

Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.

CONTEXT:
The Lifestyle Heart Trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle changes may lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year.

OBJECTIVES:
To determine the feasibility of patients to sustain intensive lifestyle changes for a total of 5 years and the effects of these lifestylechanges (without lipid-lowering drugs) on coronary heart disease.

DESIGN:
Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1986 to 1992 using a randomized invitational design.

Artificial food colouring and hyperactivity symptoms in children.

(1) A hypothesis has been proposed that artificial food colourings have a role in exacerbating hyperactive behavior in children; (2) A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover clinical study in 297 children representative of the general population showed higher hyperactivity scores during the periods when they were ingesting food colourings; (3) A meta-analysis of 15 double-blind clinical trials that evaluated artificial food colouring in children already considered to be hyperactive showed an increase in their hyperactive behavior; (4) In practice, even though the mechanism underlying t

Behavioral, plasma, and calorimetric changes related to food texture modification in men.

We hypothesized that food texture modifications might alter anticipatory reflexes, feeding behavior, and the postabsorptive consequences of ingestion. Two sets of complete meals with different textures but the same macronutrient composition were prepared. The first set was either a soup containing chunks of food (mixture) or the same soup blended until smooth (purée). The second set was either a rusk (R), a sandwich loaf (SL), or a liquid rusk meal (LR).

Particle size of wheat, maize, and oat test meals: effects on plasma glucose and insulin responses and on the rate of starch digestion in vitro.

When normal volunteers ate isocaloric wheat-based meals, their plasma insulin responses (peak concentration and area under curve) increased stepwise: whole grains less than cracked grains less than coarse flour less than fine flour. Insulin responses were also greater with fine maizemeal than with whole or cracked maize grains but were similar with whole groats, rolled oats, and fine oatmeal. The peak-to-nadir swing of plasma glucose was greater with wheat flour than with cracked or whole grains.

Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre. Effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum-insulin.

Ten normal subjects ingested test meals based on apples, each containing 60 g available carbohydrate. Fibre-free juice could be consumed eleven times faster than intact apples and four times faster than fibre-disrupted purée. Satiety was assessed numerically. With the rate of ingestion equalised, juice was significantly less satisfying than purée, and purée than apples. Plasma-glucose rose to similar levels after all three meals. However, there was a striking rebound fall after juice, and to a lesser extent after purée, which was not seen after apples.

Particle size, satiety and the glycaemic response.

OBJECTIVE:
This study investigated the hypothesis that the smaller the particle size of the food, the higher the glycaemic-insulin response and the lower the satiety rating.

DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:
Ten healthy subjects consumed equal carbohydrate portions of four test meals of equivalent nutritional composition based on four different grades of wheat: whole grains, cracked grains, coarse and fine wholemeal flour.

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