Cross-Sectional

Natural killer cells, vitamins, and other blood components of vegetarian and omnivorous men.

The study population consisted of male vegetarians (aged 28-50 years), who were recruited from the vegetarian cohort being followed by the Department of Epidemiology (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, FRG), and the same number of age- and sex-matched controls from the personnel of the same center. Among the vitamins tested, only the level of carotene was significantly higher in vegetarians; the levels of vitamin A, K, and E were not elevated. Among the other blood parameters tested, only creatinine and glutamine-transferase levels were significantly lower in vegetarians.

Effect of dietary fiber on the vitamin B6 status among vegetarian and nonvegetarian elderly (Dutch nutrition surveillance system).

To obtain more insight into the effect of dietary fiber on vitamin B6 status among elderly people, we studied dietary interrelationships as well as associations between dietary intake and plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and cofactor stimulation of aspartate aminotransferase in erythrocytes (EAST-AC) among 441 nonvegetarian (aged 65-79) and 32 vegetarian elderly (aged 65-94). EAST-AC was found to be inversely related with intake of vitamin B6 and dietary fiber in bivariate regression analyses.

Long-term effects of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional status of elderly people (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System).

The health and nutritional status (anthropometry, and blood and urine biochemistry) of 44 Dutch apparently healthy vegetarians, aged 65-97 years, refraining from meat, fish, and poultry consumption, was assessed for insight into long-term consequences of ovo-lacto- or lacto-vegetarianism. The results indicate that in comparison to omnivorous elderly the vegetarian elderly (especially men) have aged successfully with respect to cardiovascular risk factors. In contrast, vegetarian elderly are at a higher risk for a marginal iron, zinc, and vitamin B12 status.

Hormone levels in vegetarian and nonvegetarian teenage girls: potential implications for breast cancer risk.

Between September 1984 and June 1985, a total of 75 adolescent girls, 35 vegetarians residing in a Seventh-Day Adventist school and 40 nonvegetarians residing in a private non-Adventist boarding school, underwent measurement of their plasma hormone levels in the follicular and luteal phase of their menstrual cycles as well as dietary intake measured by 3-day food records, medical history, height, and weight.

Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets.

Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians.

Quantitative determination of lignans and isoflavonoids in plasma of omnivorous and vegetarian women by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

The first quantitative method for the determination of both lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in plasma is presented. Using ion-exchange chromatography the diphenols are separated into two fractions 1) the biologically "active" fraction containing the free compounds + mono- and disulfates and 2) the biologically "inactive" fraction containing the mono- and diglucuronides and the sulfoglucuronides. After hydrolysis the fractions are further purified by solid phase extraction and ion exchange chromatography.

Nutrient intake of endurance runners with ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet and regular western diet.

During an endurance run (1,000 km in 20 days) it was investigated whether an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (OLVD) could cover the nutritional requirements of endurance athletes. A regular western diet (RWD) was used as reference. Both diets were offered with an energy content of 4,500 kcal per day and an energy percentage of carbohydrate:fat:protein of 60:30:10. The runners were divided into two dietary groups according to their usual dietary habits.

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