Cross-Sectional

Size, obesity, and leanness in vegetarian preschool children.

Alterations in a series of anthropometric measurements taken on 142 vegetarian preschool children adhering to macrobiotic or other vegetarian regimens were studied. Length, subscapular skinfolds, and arm-muscle cirumferences differed from expectations. Dietary group and age, but not sex, were associated with these variations. Measurements were more likely to be depressed among children on a macrobiotic diet.

Vegetarian diet, lifestyle and blood pressure in two religious populations.

1. The association between vegetarianism and blood pressure was studied in relation to obesity, sex and aspects of lifestyle in 180 Seventh-day Adventists and 113 Mormons aged 25-44 y. 2. Volunteers completed a questionnaire, a 1-day diet record and submitted to standardized measurements of blood pressure, heart rate and body size. 3. Ninety-eight Adventist "vegetarians' were comparable to the 113 Mormon omnivores for strength of religious affiliation, consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee and use of tobacco, but were significantly less obese. 4.

A proportionate study of cancer mortality among members of a vegetarian society.

A proportionate study was carried out of the causes of death of the 759 Vegetarian Society members whose deaths were recorded in Society records and whose death certificates could be traced. Compared to the general population, a lower proportion of deaths from respiratory diseases and from lung cancer was noted particularly in long-standing members, consistent with the evidence that vegetarians smoke less than the average.

Dietary and hormonal interrelationships among vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists and nonvegetarian men

The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17 beta, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels was investigated in 12 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) vegetarian (SV), 10 SDA nonvegetarian (SNV), and 8 non-SDA nonvegetarian (NV) men. Fasting blood samples and 3-day dietary intake information were obtained from each subject. The SV subjects consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber than the SNV and NV subjects, respectively.

The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels.

Vegetarians have an apparent diminished risk for the development of ischemic coronary heart disease. This may be secondary to dietary effects of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, but platelets, which may also play a role, have also been observed to have aberrant functions in vegetarians. We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, platelet function, platelet fatty acid levels, and platelet active prostaglandins in ten strict vegetarians (vegans), 15 lactovegetarians, and 25 age- and sex-matched omnivorous controls.

Differences in fatty acid composition of human milk in vegetarian and nonvegetarian women: long-term effect of diet.

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether there were differences in the fatty acid composition of milk from vegetarian mothers compared to nonvegetarian mothers and whether fatty acid composition was related to length of time on a vegetarian diet. Median time on a vegetarian diet was 81 months (range 36-132 months). Milk fat and fatty acids produced de novo in the mammary gland did not differ between diet groups. Milk from vegetarian women (n = 12) contained higher percentages of the precursors of arachidonic acid compared to nonvegetarian women (n = 7).

Effect of vegetarian diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations during lactation.

The effect of maternal diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has not been determined in human lactation. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, other calcitropic hormones, osteocalcin, and minerals were examined in lactating and nonlactating women consuming a vegetarian or nonvegetarian diet. The vegetarian diet was a macrobiotic diet consisting primarily of whole cereal grains and vegetables; dairy products, eggs, and meats were generally avoided.

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