Cross-Sectional

Recent patterns of medication use in the ambulatory adult population of the United States: the Slone survey.

CONTEXT:
Data on the range of prescription and over-the-counter drug use in the United States are not available.

OBJECTIVE:
To provide recent population-based information on use of all medications, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs, vitamins and minerals, and herbal preparations/natural supplements in the United States.

Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Australia. With NSW and SA survey results.

OBJECTIVES: (i) To determine the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in New South Wales and South Australia; (ii) to compare these prevalences with those in other areas of Australia and to determine the relationship between prevalence and latitude; (iii) to examine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of the disease in Australia; and (iv) to ascertain whether there had been a change in the frequency of the disease since 1961.

Regional variation in multiple sclerosis prevalence in Australia and its association with ambient ultraviolet radiation.

The aim of this study was to conduct an ecological analysis of the extent to which ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels might explain the regional variation of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Australia. MS prevalence data for six Australian regions were compared with UVR levels of the largest city in each region, with some other climatic variables and with the melanoma incidence in the same regions. A close association was found between the theoretical MS prevalence predicted from UVR levels and the actual prevalence.

Fecal hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, control subjects, and bowel cancer patients.

Cell-free extracts were prepared from mixed fecal anaerobic bacteria grown from stools of 14 vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, 16 omnivorous control subjects, and eight patients recently diagnosed with cancer of the large bowel. Preparations were assayed for NAD- and NADP-dependent 3alpha-, 7alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases with bile salts and androsterone as substrates (eight substrate-cofactor combinations were tested).

Preschool vegetarian children. Dietary and anthropometric data.

Three-day dietary intakes were obtained on forty-eight preschool children between two and five years old, who had followed a vegetarian diet since birth. Intakes were calculated for food energy and selected nutrients. In addition, the children were measured for height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and arm circumference. Average dietary intakes of the children compared favorably with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Calcium was the only nutrient consumed in less than optimal amounts.

Size, obesity, and leanness in vegetarian preschool children.

Alterations in a series of anthropometric measurements taken on 142 vegetarian preschool children adhering to macrobiotic or other vegetarian regimens were studied. Length, subscapular skinfolds, and arm-muscle cirumferences differed from expectations. Dietary group and age, but not sex, were associated with these variations. Measurements were more likely to be depressed among children on a macrobiotic diet.

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