Cross-Sectional

Investigation of lifestyle choices of individuals following a vegan diet for health and ethical reasons.

The proportion of individuals choosing to follow a vegan diet has increased in recent years. The choice is made for different reasons, primarily concern for animals (ethics) and health, which may impact both specific food choices and other lifestyle behaviors linked to health outcomes. To determine the extent to which the reason for following a vegan diet was associated with health behaviors, we conducted an online survey recruiting an international sample of 246 individuals who reported adhering to a vegan diet.

Quantifying the non-food sources of basal vitamin D input.

Unsupplemented vitamin D status is determined by cutaneous synthesis and food inputs; however, their relative magnitudes are largely unknown. In a cohort of 780 non-supplement-taking adults with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 33 (±14)ng/ml we assessed the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and non-food environmental variables. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for seasonal influence (which removed 2% of the total variance) and these adjusted values were regressed against factors involved in cutaneous synthesis.

Quantifying the food sources of basal vitamin d input.

Cutaneous synthesis and traditional food sources do not fully account for unsupplemented vitamin D status. Non-traditional food sources may be an undiscovered input. In a cohort of 780 non-supplement-taking adults with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 33 (±14)ng/ml we assessed the relationship between vitamin D status and selected food sources. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for season, UVB exposures, and body size. These adjusted values were then regressed against multiple food items and combinations.

Motives for adherence to a gluten-free diet: a qualitative investigation involving adults with coeliac disease

BACKGROUND:
Currently , the only treatment for coeliac disease is life long adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is challenging, with recent reports suggesting that adherence rates range from 42% to 91%. The present study aimed to: (i) identify motives for adhering to a gluten-free diet and (ii) explore factors implicated in adherence and non-adherence behaviour in terms of accidental and purposeful gluten consumption among adults with coeliac disease.

Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population

Mice and humans with growth hormone receptor/IGF-1 deficiencies display major reductions in age-related diseases. Because protein restriction reduces GHR-IGF-1 activity, we examined links between protein intake and mortality. Respondents aged 50–65 reporting high protein intake had a 75% increase in overall mortality and a 4-fold increase in cancer death risk during the following 18 years. These associations were either abolished or attenuated if the proteins were plant derived.

Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2.

To compare cardiovascular risk factors between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in black individuals living in the USA.

DESIGN:

A cross-sectional analysis of a sub-set of 592 black women and men enrolled in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort of Seventh-day Adventists.

SETTING:

Members of the AHS-2 cohort, who lived in all states of the USA and provinces of Canada.

SUBJECTS:

Black/African-American members of two sub-studies of AHS-2 where blood and physiological measurements were obtained.

Calcium and Vitamin D Disparities Are Related to Gender, Age, Race, Household Income Level, and Weight Classification but Not Vegetarian Status in the United States: Analysis of the NHANES 2001-2008 Data Set.

Objective: Adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes are critical during all life cycle stages.

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