Case-Control

Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study.

Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of vegetarian diets on metabolic traits are scarce.

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 as predictors of advanced-stage prostate cancer.

BACKGROUND: Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer. However, the association ofIGF-I with specific tumor stage and grade at diagnosis, which correlate with risk of recurrence and mortality, has not been studied rigorously.

Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden).

OBJECTIVES:
Dairy products consistently have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, yet the mechanism of this relationship remains unknown. Recent hypotheses propose that 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D) is protective for prostate cancer. One study in the United States found that calcium consumption, which can lower circulating 1,25 D, was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and we sought to address this hypothesis in a distinct population.

Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial.

BACKGROUND:
Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.

Plasma lipids of vegetarian and nonvegetarian males: effects of egg consumption.

Mean fasting plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides were 6, 7, and 19% lower (NS) in 36 vegetarian males compared to 18 nonvegetarian males of similar age, weight, height, alcohol consumption, and physical activity levels. None of the participants smoked. Although the vegetarian subjects were characterized by widely differing egg consumption levels, no relationships were observed between dietary or egg cholesterol intakes and plasma lipid levels.

Vitamin B-12 status of long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet") is compromised.

The present study examined the vitamin B-12 status in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet called the "living food diet." The study was comprised of two parts. In the cross-sectional part, the data on serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and dietary intakes in 21 (1 male, 20 females) long-term adherents (mean 5.2 y, range 0.7-14) of the "living food diet" were compared with those of 21 omnivorous controls matched for sex, age, social status and residence.

Antioxidant status in long-term adherents to a strict uncooked vegan diet.

Antioxidant status was investigated in 20 Finnish middle-aged female vegans and in one male vegan who were following a strict, uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet"), by means of a dietary survey and biochemical measurements (blood concentrations of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, and the activities of the zinc/copper-dependent superoxide dismutase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase). Values were compared with those of omnivores matched for sex, age, social status, and residence.

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