Acute Feeding Study

Effect of a single high-fat meal on endothelial function in healthy subjects.

Although there is a well-established relation between serum cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk, individual and national variations in this association suggest that other factors are involved in atherogenesis. High-fat diet associated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have also been suggested to be atherogenic.

A comparison of high and low fat meals on postprandial esophageal acid exposure.

Fatty foods have been identified as precipitating factors in symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER). A fat meal has also been found to decrease lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) in normal subjects. We used the ambulatory 24-h pH monitor to assess esophageal acid exposure in 10 normal subjects and 10 GER patients following low and high fat meals eaten in two body positions. The meals had nearly identical protein content, volumes, and calories. On successive days, patients ingested one of the meals twice, followed by random assignment to 3 h upright and 3 h recumbent position.

Behavioral, plasma, and calorimetric changes related to food texture modification in men.

We hypothesized that food texture modifications might alter anticipatory reflexes, feeding behavior, and the postabsorptive consequences of ingestion. Two sets of complete meals with different textures but the same macronutrient composition were prepared. The first set was either a soup containing chunks of food (mixture) or the same soup blended until smooth (purée). The second set was either a rusk (R), a sandwich loaf (SL), or a liquid rusk meal (LR).

Particle size of wheat, maize, and oat test meals: effects on plasma glucose and insulin responses and on the rate of starch digestion in vitro.

When normal volunteers ate isocaloric wheat-based meals, their plasma insulin responses (peak concentration and area under curve) increased stepwise: whole grains less than cracked grains less than coarse flour less than fine flour. Insulin responses were also greater with fine maizemeal than with whole or cracked maize grains but were similar with whole groats, rolled oats, and fine oatmeal. The peak-to-nadir swing of plasma glucose was greater with wheat flour than with cracked or whole grains.

Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre. Effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum-insulin.

Ten normal subjects ingested test meals based on apples, each containing 60 g available carbohydrate. Fibre-free juice could be consumed eleven times faster than intact apples and four times faster than fibre-disrupted purée. Satiety was assessed numerically. With the rate of ingestion equalised, juice was significantly less satisfying than purée, and purée than apples. Plasma-glucose rose to similar levels after all three meals. However, there was a striking rebound fall after juice, and to a lesser extent after purée, which was not seen after apples.

Particle size, satiety and the glycaemic response.

This study investigated the hypothesis that the smaller the particle size of the food, the higher the glycaemic-insulin response and the lower the satiety rating.

Ten healthy subjects consumed equal carbohydrate portions of four test meals of equivalent nutritional composition based on four different grades of wheat: whole grains, cracked grains, coarse and fine wholemeal flour.

The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal.

Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate.

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