AAA - All Designs

Lack of an effect of dairy protein (casein) and soy protein on plasma cholesterol of strict vegetarians. An experiment and a critical review.

In animals, ingestion of casein, the principal protein in milk, causes hypercholesterolemia, whereas in humans this effect has not been documented. We added 27 g of casein (the amount in 1.1 liters of skim milk and nearly twice the average U.S. intake) for 20 days, and 27 g of soy protein for an additional 20 days to the daily diet of 13 strict vegetarians who consumed no other animal protein during the study period. The protein supplementation increased the ad libitum daily protein intake from 59 g to 82 g.

Dietary fat intake and blood pressure: a double blind controlled trial of changing polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio.

The effect on blood pressure of elevating the dietary polyunsaturated/saturated fat (P/S) ratio was assessed in a double-blind, randomized control trial. Fifty-four healthy, normotensive volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years were randomly allocated either to a control group who ate a low P/S ratio diet throughout, or to one of two experimental groups who ate a high P/S ratio diet for one of two six-week experimental periods. Other nutrient changes were avoided.

Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians have a quiescent proliferative activity in colonic mucosa.

The proliferation of epithelial cells in colonic mucosa was studied in humans at varying degrees of risk for colon cancer. Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians, known to have significantly lower mortality from colon cancer than the general U.S. population, had the most quiescent proliferative activity of mucosal epithelial cells. Increased replication and expansion of the proliferative compartment accompanied increased colon cancer risk.

Diet, lipoproteins and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. The Leiden Intervention Trial.

The relationship between diet, serum lipoproteins, and the progression of coronary lesions was studied in 39 patients with stable angina pectoris in whom coronary arteriography had shown at least 1 vessel with 50% obstruction before intervention. Intervention consisted of a 2-year vegetarian diet that had a ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids of at least 2.0, and that contained less than 100mg of cholesterol per day.

Controlled study of the effects of dietary protein on blood pressure in normotensive humans.

1. The object of this study was to determine whether meat protein per se is responsible for the higher blood pressures (BP) in omnivores compared with vegetarians. 2. Assessments were made by a double blind randomized control trial in 64 normotensive volunteers recruited from Royal Perth Hospital staff. 3. All volunteers were given a 'meat' substitute during the 2 week control period.

Chronic disease among Seventh-day Adventists, a low-risk group. Rationale, methodology, and description of the population.

The Adventist Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 34,198 non-Hispanic white Seventh-day Adventists (13,857 men; 20,341 women, age 25-100 years) followed for 6 years (1977-1982). Within this population, 55.2% were lacto-ovovegetarian (consumed meat, poultry, or fish less than one time per week with no restrictions as to egg or dairy product consumption) in 1976 and most abstained from alcohol, tobacco, and pork products.

Dietary habits and breast cancer incidence among Seventh-day Adventists.

Breast cancer incidence was monitored in a cohort of 20,341 California Seventh-day Adventist women who completed a detailed lifestyle questionnaire in 1976, and who were followed for 6 years. There were 215 histologically confirmed primary breast cancer detected among some 115,000 person-years of follow-up. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years, indicating a primarily postmenopausal case series. Established risk factors for breast cancer showed strong relationships to risk in these data.


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