Fiber

High-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets for insulin-treated men with diabetes mellitus.

The effects of high-carbohydrate, high plant fiber (HCF) diets on glucose and lipid metabolism of 20 lean men receiving insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus were evaluated on a metabolic ward. All men received control diets for an average of 7 days followed by HCF diets for an average of 16 days. Diets were designed to be weight-maintaining and there were no significant alterations in body weight. The daily dose of insulin was lower for each patient on the HCF diet than on the control diet.

Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men.

Some evidence suggests that diets high in animal fat or red meat may increase the risk of colon cancer, whereas high intake of fiber or vegetables may be protective. Frequently, intake of red meat has been a stronger risk factor than total fat. Because data from prospective cohort studies are sparse, we examined fat, meat, fiber, and vegetable intake in relation to risk of colon cancer in a cohort of 47,949 U.S. male health professionals who were free of diagnosed cancer in 1986.

Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: effects of fat and fiber.

Recently, a relatively small reduction in systolic blood pressure (approximately 5 mm Hg) was estimated to substantially reduce the numbers of major coronary events. The blood pressure reduction is about the same as the difference seen between typical ovolactovegetarians and omnivores. This paper reviews the evidence for the blood pressure-lowering effects of a vegetarian diet on those with elevated blood pressure. It also reviews whether the effect on blood pressure of a vegetarian diet can be attributed either to elevation of the dietary P:S ratio or to fiber intake alone.

Effect of dietary fiber on the vitamin B6 status among vegetarian and nonvegetarian elderly (Dutch nutrition surveillance system).

To obtain more insight into the effect of dietary fiber on vitamin B6 status among elderly people, we studied dietary interrelationships as well as associations between dietary intake and plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and cofactor stimulation of aspartate aminotransferase in erythrocytes (EAST-AC) among 441 nonvegetarian (aged 65-79) and 32 vegetarian elderly (aged 65-94). EAST-AC was found to be inversely related with intake of vitamin B6 and dietary fiber in bivariate regression analyses.

Vegetarian and other complex diets, fats, fiber, and hypertension.

Although much of the attention on diet and hypertension has centered around the rule of specific nutrients such as sodium, potassium, and alcohol, it has become evident that certain complex dietary patterns have a blood pressure-lowering effect and may help protect against the development of hypertension. It remains to be seen whether these effects on blood pressure require complex but specific combinations of nutrients or, alternatively, are due to hitherto unrecognized single nutrients with antihypertensive properties.

Digestibility of dietary fiber components in vegetarian men.

Digestibility of fiber components namely neutral detergent fiber (total content of cellwall) cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are estimated in 14 healthy vegetarian men during adlibitum feeding and at 3 energy levels namely 2526, 2868 and 3290 kcals/day. Values of digestibility for adlibitum experiments were 34.17 +/- 2.3 for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 30.1 +/- 3.9 for cellulose and 53.4 +/- 3.0 for hemicellulose and 8.1 +/- 2.6 for lignin. There was a considerable variability in digestibility of fiber components between individuals

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