All-Cause Mortality

Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. DESIGN: Cohort studies. SETTING: Three counties in central Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997.

Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in adventist health study 2.

IMPORTANCE Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. DESIGN Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. SETTING Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort.

A proportionate study of cancer mortality among members of a vegetarian society.

A proportionate study was carried out of the causes of death of the 759 Vegetarian Society members whose deaths were recorded in Society records and whose death certificates could be traced. Compared to the general population, a lower proportion of deaths from respiratory diseases and from lung cancer was noted particularly in long-standing members, consistent with the evidence that vegetarians smoke less than the average.

The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview.

The Oxford Vegetarian Study is a prospective study of 6000 vegetarians and 5000 nonvegetarian control subjects recruited in the United Kingdom between 1980 and 1984. Cross-sectional analyses of study data showed that vegans had lower total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than did meat eaters; vegetarians and fish eaters had intermediate and similar values. Meat and cheese consumption were positively associated, and dietary fiber intake was inversely associated, with total-cholesterol concentration in both men and women.

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