White vegetables: glycemia and satiety.

The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with other foods, the glycemic effect of many white vegetables has been measured.

Effects of food texture change on metabolic parameters: short- and long-term feeding patterns and body weight.

A complete diet was prepared with cooked pieces of meat, beans, cream starch, and water and presented to the rats in two different textures: a blended purée and a rough mixture that required a lot of chewing. We hypothesized that this texture modification might change both anticipatory reflexes and feeding behavior. Feeding rate, meal size, intermeal intervals, and their correlation were monitored in response to each texture. The long-term (6 wk) effect on body weight was assessed. Periprandial plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and lipid concentrations were assayed.

Behavioral, plasma, and calorimetric changes related to food texture modification in men.

We hypothesized that food texture modifications might alter anticipatory reflexes, feeding behavior, and the postabsorptive consequences of ingestion. Two sets of complete meals with different textures but the same macronutrient composition were prepared. The first set was either a soup containing chunks of food (mixture) or the same soup blended until smooth (purée). The second set was either a rusk (R), a sandwich loaf (SL), or a liquid rusk meal (LR).

Particle size of wheat, maize, and oat test meals: effects on plasma glucose and insulin responses and on the rate of starch digestion in vitro.

When normal volunteers ate isocaloric wheat-based meals, their plasma insulin responses (peak concentration and area under curve) increased stepwise: whole grains less than cracked grains less than coarse flour less than fine flour. Insulin responses were also greater with fine maizemeal than with whole or cracked maize grains but were similar with whole groats, rolled oats, and fine oatmeal. The peak-to-nadir swing of plasma glucose was greater with wheat flour than with cracked or whole grains.

Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre. Effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum-insulin.

Ten normal subjects ingested test meals based on apples, each containing 60 g available carbohydrate. Fibre-free juice could be consumed eleven times faster than intact apples and four times faster than fibre-disrupted puree. Satiety was assessed numerically. With the rate of ingestion equalised, juice was significantly less satisfying than puree, and puree than apples. Plasma-glucose rose to similar levels after all three meals. However, there was a striking rebound fall after juice, and to a lesser extent after puree, which was not seen after apples.

Particle size, satiety and the glycaemic response.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the hypothesis that the smaller the particle size of the food, the higher the glycaemic-insulin response and the lower the satiety rating. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Ten healthy subjects consumed equal carbohydrate portions of four test meals of equivalent nutritional composition based on four different grades of wheat: whole grains, cracked grains, coarse and fine wholemeal flour.

The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal.

Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate.

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