Risks of Supplement Use

Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

BACKGROUND:
Antioxidant vitamins are thought to play a role in atherosclerosis. Supplementation of these nutrients has been explored as a means of reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

PURPOSE:
To assess the evidence of the effectiveness of vitamin supplementation, specifically vitamins A, C, and E; beta-carotene; folic acid; antioxidant combinations; and multivitamin supplements, in preventing cardiovascular disease.

DATA SOURCES:
Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry and MEDLINE (1966 to September 2001), reference lists, and experts.

Developmental (embryo-fetal toxicity/teratogenicity) toxicity studies of synthetic crystalline lycopene in rats and rabbits.

Synthetic crystalline lycopene is a nutritional supplement to increase dietary intake of lycopene, an antioxidant carotenoid. Its potential oral developmental toxicity was studied in rats and rabbits. Each study included 3 control groups (water and matrix for Lycopene 10 CWD or LycoVit 10%), 3 Lycopene 10 CWD groups [500, 1500 and 3000 (rats)/2000 (rabbits) mg/kg/day] and 1 LycoVit 10% group [3000 mg/kg/day (rats)/2000 (rabbits)].

Antioxidant activity of fresh apples.

Vitamin C is used as a dietary supplement because of its antioxidant activity, although a high dose (500 mg) may act as a pro-oxidant in the body1, 2. Here we show that 100 g of fresh apples has an antioxidant activity equivalent to 1,500 mg of vitamin C, and that whole-apple extracts inhibit the growth of colon- and liver- cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

Recent patterns of medication use in the ambulatory adult population of the United States: the Slone survey.

CONTEXT:
Data on the range of prescription and over-the-counter drug use in the United States are not available.

OBJECTIVE:
To provide recent population-based information on use of all medications, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs, vitamins and minerals, and herbal preparations/natural supplements in the United States.

Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women.

BACKGROUND:Vegetarians are generally deficient in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect on plasma lipid levels, and some studies showed that they had breast cancer suppression effect. One of the biomarkers of breast cancer risk is the ratio of urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE(1)) to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE(1)). OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress in vegetarians. DESIGN:Single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

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