Studies that relate to population-based data on osteoporosis prevalance and incidence
China Health and Nutrition Survey; dietary calcium; epidemiological study; fracture prevention; plant-based diet
SUMMARY:This cross-sectional study showed that, although vegans had lower dietary calcium and protein intakes than omnivores, veganism did not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and did not alter body composition.
INTRODUCTION:Whether a lifelong vegetarian diet has any negative effect on bone health is a contentious issue. We undertook this study to examine the association between lifelong vegetarian diet and bone mineral density and body composition in a group of postmenopausal women.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. DESIGN: Cohort studies. SETTING: Three counties in central Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997.
Hip fracture, a major health problem in elderly persons, varies in incidence among the populations of different countries and is directly related to animal protein intake, a finding that suggests that bone integrity is compromised by endogenous acid production consequent to the metabolism of animal proteins. If that is so, vegetable foods might provide a countervailing effect, because they are a rich source of base (bicarbonate) in the form of metabolizable organic anions, which can neutralize protein-derived acid and supply substrate (carbonate) for bone formation.
This study examined bone density among postmenopausal Buddhist nuns and female religious followers of Buddhism in southern Taiwan and related the measurements to subjects characteristics including age, body mass, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vegetarian practice. A total of 258 postmenopausal Taiwanese vegetarian women participated in the study. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-photon absorptimetry.
OBJECTIVE:To compare spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and 1-year BMD change between premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. DESIGN:Cross-sectional comparison of spinal BMD at baseline and prospective comparison of a subsample. SETTING:A western Canadian metropolitan area. SUBJECTS/SAMPLES:Healthy vegetarian (n = 15 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, n = 8 vegan) and nonvegetarian (n = 22) women aged 20 to 40 years, with regular menstrual cycles and stable body weight completed baseline measurements.
PURPOSE:Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density, geometrical and biomechanical properties in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens and comparison of these parameters with those of age-matched female subjects with "Mediterranean" dietary intake lacking in these substances. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Volumetric cortical, trabecular and total mineral density and bone geometrical properties were evaluated in 15 female subjects with phytoestrogens dietary intake.
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