Obesity/Overweight

Effect of changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet on anthropometric measurements in UK adults

BACKGROUND:Vegetarians are often a little leaner compared with nonvegetarians and suffer less from obesity and its associated complications than nonvegetarians. Whether this is because of not eating meat specifically is unclear. OBJECTIVE:We investigated whether changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet resulted in changes to anthropometric measurements. Design Subjects (n = 33; seven males and 26 females) who were in the earliest stages of becoming vegetarian were observed for 6 months.

[Serum leptin concentration and some lipid parameters in vegetarian children].

Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue, regulates feeding behavior, satiation rate, energy expenditure and also plays an important role in maturation and reproduction. Recent studies support the concept that several factors such as a diet may influence on leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentration of leptin and lipids status in prepubertal children aged from 2 to 10 years with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian (n = 24) and omnivorous diet (n = 20). Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzymeassay (ELISA).

Risk of overweight and obesity among semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women.

BACKGROUND:Observational studies suggest that a plant-based diet is inversely related to body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to examine the BMI (kg/m(2)) and risk of overweight and obesity of self-defined semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women. DESIGN:Data analyzed in this cross-sectional study were from 55459 healthy women participating in the Swedish Mammography Cohort.

Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables.

Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford.

BACKGROUND:Cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians and vegans are leaner than omnivores. Longitudinal data on weight gain in these groups are sparse. OBJECTIVE:We investigated changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) over a 5-year period in meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in the UK. DESIGN:Self-reported anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected at baseline in 1994-1999 and at follow-up in 2000-2003; the median duration of follow-up was 5.3 years.

Vegetarian diets and weight status.

The increasing global health problems of overweight and obesity are associated with coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers, among other health concerns. Vegetarian diets are associated with reduced body weight, lower incidence of certain chronic disease, and lower medical costs compared with non-vegetarian diets. We reviewed the literature to ascertain the extent to which and by what mechanism(s) a plant-based diet may mediate body weight.

A randomized clinical trial of a standard versus vegetarian diet for weight loss: the impact of treatment preference.

BACKGROUND:With obesity rampant, methods to achieve sustained weight loss remain elusive. OBJECTIVE:To compare the long-term weight-loss efficacy of 2 cal and fat-restricted diets, standard (omnivorous) versus lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and to determine the effect of a chosen diet versus an assigned diet. DESIGN, SUBJECTS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 176 adults who were sedentary and overweight (mean body mass index, 34.0 kg/m(2)).

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