Obesity/Overweight

Lipoprotein risk factors in vegetarian women of Indian descent are unrelated to dietary intake.

Dietary intakes, anthropometric indices and plasma lipoprotein and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were measured in premenopausal vegetarian women of Indian descent (n = 22) and in white women of European descent consuming either mixed (n = 22) or vegetarian diets (n = 18). The Indian women were shorter in height than the white women and had a higher proportion of body fat. Energy intakes were lower in the Indian women, both in absolute terms and per kg body weight.

Arterial compliance, blood pressure, plasma leptin, and plasma lipids in women are improved with weight reduction equally with a meat-based diet and a plant-based diet.

Obesity, strongly associated with the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), is becoming increasingly prevalent. This study was designed to establish first whether systemic arterial compliance (SAC), an index of arterial function, is improved with weight loss and second, whether cardiovascular risk factors that improve with weight loss are reduced equally with lean meat or with an equivalent amount of plant protein in the diet.

Resting metabolic rate and thermogenic effect of food in vegetarian diets compared with Mediterranean diets

The purpose of our work is to compare the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thermogenic effect of food (TEF) in a group of vegetarians and a group of subjects consuming a Mediterranean diet. The composition of the diets was similar. Thirty-two subjects were studied: 16 vegetarians (age 34 +/- 9 years, BMI 21 +/- 2) and 16 omnivors (age 30 +/- 5 years, BMI 22 +/- 3). All were in excellent general health. Each subject consumed a dish of pasta (100 g) and bread (30 g) after RMR had been measured. TEF was measured over the next 3 h and calculated as the incremental area above RMR.

Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium.

Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and vegetarian status among Seventh-Day Adventists in Barbados: preliminary results.

A population-based sample of Seventh-Day Adventists was studied to determine the relationship between vegetarian status, body mass index (BMI), obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension, in order to gain a better understanding of factors influencing chronic diseases in Barbados. A systematic sampling from a random start technique was used to select participants for the study.

Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets.

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Approximately 2.5% of adults in the United States and 4% of adults in Canada follow vegetarian diets. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat, fish, or fowl. Interest in vegetarianism appears to be increasing, with many restaurants and college foodservices offering vegetarian meals routinely.

Dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan Study.

OBJECTIVE:Evaluation of dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of German vegans. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTINGS:Germany. SUBJECTS:Subjects were recruited through journal advertisements. Of 868 volunteers, only 154 participated in all study segments (pre- and main questionnaire, two 9-day food frequency questionnaires, blood sampling) and fulfilled the following study criteria: vegan dietary intake at least 1 year prior to study start, minimum age of 18 y, no pregnancy or childbirth during the last 12 months. INTERVENTIONS:No interventions.

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