Obesity/Overweight

Trends in intake of energy and macronutrients--United States, 1971-2000.

During 1971-2000, the prevalence of obesity in the United States increased from 14.5% to 30.9%. Unhealthy diets and sedentary behaviors have been identified as the primary causes of deaths attributable to obesity. Evaluating trends in dietary intake is an important step in understanding the factors that contribute to the increase in obesity.

A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study.

Background/objectives:To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting.

Size, obesity, and leanness in vegetarian preschool children.

Alterations in a series of anthropometric measurements taken on 142 vegetarian preschool children adhering to macrobiotic or other vegetarian regimens were studied. Length, subscapular skinfolds, and arm-muscle cirumferences differed from expectations. Dietary group and age, but not sex, were associated with these variations. Measurements were more likely to be depressed among children on a macrobiotic diet.

Growth in "new" vegetarian preschool children using the Jenss-Bayley curve fitting technique.

Length and weight measurements obtained on 142 vegetarian and 229 nonvegetarian school children from a normative population were fitted to growth curves using the asymptotic nonlinear regression equation of Jenss and Bayley. All of the children were Caucasian and age ranged from a few weeks to 6 yr. The growth curves obtained for vegetarian children were from 0.5 to 1.0 kg and 1 to 2 cm lower, depending on age, sex, and diet, than were curves for reference populations of nonvegetarian children. Length was affected more than weight.

Effect of vegetarian diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations during lactation.

The effect of maternal diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has not been determined in human lactation. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, other calcitropic hormones, osteocalcin, and minerals were examined in lactating and nonlactating women consuming a vegetarian or nonvegetarian diet. The vegetarian diet was a macrobiotic diet consisting primarily of whole cereal grains and vegetables; dairy products, eggs, and meats were generally avoided.

Hematological, anthropometric, and metabolic comparisons between vegetarian and nonvegetarian elderly women.

The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological, anthropometric, and metabolic differences in elderly women who were similar in most respects except for choice of diet. Nineteen vegetarian (V) and 12 non-vegetarian (NV) elderly women (mean ages 72.3 +/- 1.4 and 69.5 +/- 1.0 years, respectively) were recruited based on several selection criteria including race, religion, education, Quetelet Index, absence of major chronic disease and use of medications, physical activity, and geographic area.

Thermic responses to vegetarian meals and yoga exercise.

The thermic effect (TEF) of vegetarian meals was measured for breakfast and lunch in 6 lean healthy men (18-25 years) during normal feeding (NF) and with 20% overfeeding (OF) on 28 successive days. The energy contents of breakfast were 223 +/- 10 and 330 +/- 48 kcal, and those of lunch were 1,033 +/- 220 and 1,247 +/- 222 kcal in NF and OF, respectively. In NF, the TEF per 180 min was 32.7 +/- 8.6 and 54.8 +/- 6.3 kcal for breakfast and lunch, respectively. In OF, the TEF was 38.3 +/- 8.3 kcal for breakfast and 57.2 +/- 5.4 kcal for lunch.

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