Obesity/Overweight - Dietary Interventions

Studies that use a dietary intervention to affect obesity/overweight

Low-fat school lunch programs: achieving acceptance.

A study was carried out to determine whether hands-on classroom experience with low-fat foods would increase children's acceptance of those foods in the school's lunch program. The 9-month project took place at an elementary school in upstate New York. Half of the classrooms served as the intervention group and received classroom experience with new foods; the other half served as the control group and received no classroom experience. Consumption measurements of 16 new foods, introduced at approximately 2-week intervals, were taken for all students who ate school lunches.

Influence of carbohydrate and fat intake on diet-induced thermogenesis and brown fat activity in rats fed low protein diets.

Voluntary intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate (CHO) was modified by feeding young rats either a control purified diet [% metabolizable energy (ME): protein 21, fat 7, CHO 72], a control diet plus sucrose solution (20%) to drink (final intakes 17, 6 and 77% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively) or a low protein diet substituted with either CHO (8, 7 and 85% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively) or fat (8, 20 and 72% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively).

A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study.

Background/objectives:To determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet program on anthropometric and biochemical measures in a multicenter corporate setting.

Arterial compliance, blood pressure, plasma leptin, and plasma lipids in women are improved with weight reduction equally with a meat-based diet and a plant-based diet.

Obesity, strongly associated with the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), is becoming increasingly prevalent. This study was designed to establish first whether systemic arterial compliance (SAC), an index of arterial function, is improved with weight loss and second, whether cardiovascular risk factors that improve with weight loss are reduced equally with lean meat or with an equivalent amount of plant protein in the diet.

Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium.

Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets.

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Approximately 2.5% of adults in the United States and 4% of adults in Canada follow vegetarian diets. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat, fish, or fowl. Interest in vegetarianism appears to be increasing, with many restaurants and college foodservices offering vegetarian meals routinely.

Effect of changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet on anthropometric measurements in UK adults

BACKGROUND:Vegetarians are often a little leaner compared with nonvegetarians and suffer less from obesity and its associated complications than nonvegetarians. Whether this is because of not eating meat specifically is unclear. OBJECTIVE:We investigated whether changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet resulted in changes to anthropometric measurements. Design Subjects (n = 33; seven males and 26 females) who were in the earliest stages of becoming vegetarian were observed for 6 months.

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