Obesity/Overweight - Dietary Interventions

Studies that use a dietary intervention to affect obesity/overweight

Consumption of a defined, plant-based diet reduces lipoprotein(a), inflammation, and other atherogenic lipoproteins and particles within 4 weeks.

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly atherogenic lipoprotein and is minimally effected by lifestyle changes. While some drugs can reduce Lp(a), diet has not consistently shown definitive reduction of this biomarker. The effect of consuming a plant-based diet on serum Lp(a) concentrations have not been previously evaluated. HYPOTHESIS: Consumption of a defined, plant-based for 4 weeks reduces Lp(a).

Mediterranean versus vegetarian diet for cardiovascular disease prevention (the CARDIVEG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND:
Nutrition is able to alter the cardiovascular health of the general population. However, the optimal dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention is still far from being defined. Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are those reporting the greatest grade of evidence in the literature, but no experimental studies comparing these two dietary patterns are available.

Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

BACKGROUND:Vegetarian diets may promote weight loss, but evidence remains inconclusive. METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE and UpToDate databases were searched through September 22, 2014, and investigators extracted data regarding study characteristics and assessed study quality among selected randomized clinical trials. Population size, demographic (i.e., gender and age) and anthropometric (i.e., body mass index) characteristics, types of interventions, follow-up periods, and trial quality (Jadad score) were recorded.

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Changes in Body Weight in Clinical Trials of Vegetarian Diets

In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists.

Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: A randomized controlled trial of five different diets.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. METHODS:Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction.

An integrative view of obesity.

Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation.

Maintenance of a low-fat diet: follow-up of the Women's Health Trial.

This report examines the maintenance of a low-fat diet 1 year on average after the completion of intervention sessions among participants in theWomen's Health Trial (WHT). The WHT was a randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of adoption of a low-fat diet among women of moderate or increased risk of breast cancer, conduced in Seattle, Houston, and Cincinnati in 1985-1988. The women randomized to the low-fat diet attended an intensive dietary intervention program for 5-37 months.

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