Obesity/Overweight - Dietary Interventions

Studies that use a dietary intervention to affect obesity/overweight

A plant-based diet for overweight and obesity prevention and treatment.

The goal of this paper is to review the evidence related to the effect of plant-based dietary patterns on obesity and weight loss, including both observational and intervention trials. Literature from plant-based diets (PBDs) epidemiological and clinical trial research was used to inform this review. In addition, data on dietary quality, adherence, and acceptability were evaluated and are presented. Both clinical trials and observational research indicate an advantage to adoption of PBDs for preventing overweight and obesity and promoting weight loss.

Mediterranean versus vegetarian diet for cardiovascular disease prevention (the CARDIVEG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND:
Nutrition is able to alter the cardiovascular health of the general population. However, the optimal dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention is still far from being defined. Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are those reporting the greatest grade of evidence in the literature, but no experimental studies comparing these two dietary patterns are available.

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Changes in Body Weight in Clinical Trials of Vegetarian Diets

In observational studies, vegetarians generally have lower body weights compared with omnivores. However, weight changes that occur when vegetarian diets are prescribed have not been well quantified. We estimated the effect on body weight when vegetarian diets are prescribed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles through December 31, 2013. Additional articles were identified from reference lists.

An integrative view of obesity.

Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation.

Maintenance of a low-fat diet: follow-up of the Women's Health Trial.

This report examines the maintenance of a low-fat diet 1 year on average after the completion of intervention sessions among participants in theWomen's Health Trial (WHT). The WHT was a randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of adoption of a low-fat diet among women of moderate or increased risk of breast cancer, conduced in Seattle, Houston, and Cincinnati in 1985-1988. The women randomized to the low-fat diet attended an intensive dietary intervention program for 5-37 months.

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