Nutrient Profiles of Various Diets

Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases?

A number of studies have evaluated the health of vegetarians. Others have studied the health effects of foods that are preferred or avoided by vegetarians. The purpose of this review is to look critically at the evidence on the health effects of vegetarian diets and to seek possible explanations where results appear to conflict. There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, largely explained by low LDL cholesterol, probable lower rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower prevalence of obesity.

Impact of food consumption habits on the pesticide dietary intake: comparison between a French vegetarian and the general population.

This study aims to compare the pesticide residue dietary intake of the French general population and the vegetarian population, separated into five specific diets: omnivorous (OMN), lacto-vegetarian (LV), ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV), pesco-lacto-vegetarian (PLV) and vegan (VG). Theoretical Maximum Daily Intakes (TMDIs) based on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) were calculated as a percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Among the 421 pesticides studied, only 48 had TMDI above ADI for at least one population subgroup.

Vegetarian diets and public health: biomarker and redox connections.

Vegetarian diets are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals. However, they may not act as antioxidants in vivo, and yet still have important signaling and regulatory functions. Some may act as pro-oxidants, modulating cellular redox tone and oxidizing redox sensitive sites. In this review, evidence for health benefits of vegetarian diets is presented from different perspectives: epidemiological, biomarker, evolutionary, and public health, as well as antioxidant.

Effects of vegetarian nutrition-A nutrition ecological perspective

Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition.

Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease.

A vegetarian dietary pattern as a nutrient-dense approach to weight management: an analysis of the national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2004.

BACKGROUND:Population-based studies have shown that vegetarians have lower body mass index than nonvegetarians, suggesting that vegetariandiet plans may be an approach for weight management. However, a perception exists that vegetarian diets are deficient in certain nutrients. OBJECTIVE:To compare dietary quality of vegetarians, nonvegetarians, and dieters, and to test the hypothesis that a vegetarian diet would not compromise nutrient intake when used to manage body weight.

Health aspects, nutrition and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly (> 65yrs).

BACKGROUND:Epidemiological studies indicate that a well balanced vegetarian diet offers several health benefits including a lower prevalence of prosperity diseases in vegetarians compared to omnivores. It was the purpose of the present study to compare nutritional and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) elderly. METHODS:Twenty-two female and 7 male V (females: 84.1 ± 5.1yrs, males: 80.5 ± 7.5yrs) and 23 female and 7 male NV (females: 84.3 ± 5.0yrs, males: 80.6 ± 7.3yrs) participated.

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