Nutrient Profiles of Various Diets

The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?

Advances in nutrition research during the past few decades have changed scientists' understanding of the contribution of vegetarian diets to human health and disease. Diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, could best prevent nutrient deficiencies as well as diet-related chronic diseases. However, restrictive or unbalanced vegetarian diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies, particularly in situations of high metabolic demand.

Spicing up a vegetarian diet: chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals.

Thousands of chemical structures have been identified in plant foods. Many are found in spices. Typically, spices are the dried aromatic parts of plants-generally the seeds, berries, roots, pods, and sometimes leaves-that mainly, but not invariably, grow in hot countries. Given the wide range of botanical species and plant parts from which spices are derived, they can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet.

[Lipids and vitamin A and E status in vegetarian children].

BACKGROUND:The vegetarian diet may play a preventive role in the development of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, cancer and diabetes. In the literature only a few papers concerning benefits to health from vegetarian diet have been reported in children. AIM:The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentration of vitamin A (retinol) and E (alpha-tocopherol) in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diet. Material and methods. Vitamins A and E were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in blood of 17 vegetarians and 16 nonvegetarian children.

Effects of a low-fat vegan diet and a Step II diet on macro- and micronutrient intakes in overweight postmenopausal women.

OBJECTIVE:This study investigated the nutrient intake of overweight postmenopausal women assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a Step II diet. METHODS:Fifty-nine overweight (body mass index, 26 to 44 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a self-selected low-fat vegan or a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet in a 14-wk controlled trial on weight loss and metabolism. Nutrient intake, which was measured per 1000 kcal, was the main outcome measure. Statistical analyses included within-group and between-group t tests examining changes associated with each diet.

Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health.

BACKGROUND:This study aimed to describe the dietary intakes of adolescent vegetarians and omnivores and determine if, and how, attitude toward personal health related to food consumption. METHODS:Among grade 9 students in Ontario, Canada (n = 630), vegetarian status and estimated consumption of foods and food groups were determined by food frequency questionnaire. Personal health was self-categorized as very important (the "health conscious") or somewhat/not important (the "non-health conscious").

Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary.

The effect of cooking method upon the titratable acidity of a popular vegetarian dish--scope for reducing its erosive potential?

The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of cooking method on the erosive potential of ratatouille. Two cooking methods, stewing and oven roasting, were applied to standardised ingredients taken from the same fruits and vegetables. The resultant dishes were liquidised and diluted with 100 mls of distilled water. Five 25 ml samples of each group were titrated to pH 7.0 against 0.1 Molar Sodium Hydroxide.

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